is the study of human body structure. Physiology is the study of how the body
works, and how it executes its functions to perform life-supporting activities.
is a reference point in which the individual would be standing straight with
its feel aligned together, eyes directionally forward, arms on the side, palms
orienting forward, and the thumb positionally away from the body.
The nose is superior to mouth
B. wrist is distal to elbow
C. hip is inferior to shoulder
D. skin is superficial to bone
E. hip is superior to groin
A. Ottic is ear
B. Occipital is the back of the head
C. Cephalic is the head
D. Cervical is the neck
E. Vertebral Cavity is the lower
F. Perineal is between external
genitalia and anus perineal
G. Olecranal is the back of the knee
H. Brachial, Antebrachial is the arm
I. Crural, Sural is the front and
J. Femoral is the thigh
K. Axillary is the armpit
L. Sternal is the middle chest
Right upper quadrant is gallbladder
Left upper quadrant is stomach
Right lower quadrant is appendix
Left lower quadrant is urinary
Right hypochondriac region is liver
Epigastric region is stomach
Left hypochondriac region is
Right lumbar region is ascending colon
of large intestine
Umbilical region is small intestine
Left lumber region is descending
colon of large intestine
Right iliac region is appendix
Hypogastric region is urinary
Left iliac region is sigmoid colon
The ventral body cavities are composed of thoracic cavity and
abdominopelvic cavity. The dorsal body cavities are composed of cranial cavity
and vertebral cavity
8. The three types of Serous membranes
are Pleura, Pericardium and Peritoneum. The parietal and visceral pleura are in
the lung. The parietal and visceral pericardium are in the heart. The visceral
and parietal peritoneum are in the liver.
The six levels of organization in the human body are the following in
order: Chemical level, Cellular level, Tissue Level, Organ level, Organ system
level, Organismal level.
10. Atoms are known for being the
smallest non-living blocks of matter. The atomic number determines the same
ratio of the protons to the atom that it has. Atomic mass is the overall sum of
the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
11. There are about twenty-five elements
that compose the body, and the four main elements are the following: carbon,
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen.
12. Organic compounds are compounds that
contain the element carbon, while inorganic compounds are typically compounds
that do not have carbon with the exceptions of carbon dioxide and carbon
monoxide. An example of organic compound would be lipids, and salts for
13. a pH of four means that it is acidic,
which means it has more hydrogen protons than hydroxides.
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Its building blocks
B. Lipid contains carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen. Its building blocks are triglycerides.
C. Protein is composed of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Its building blocks are amino acids.
D. Nucleic acids are built from
nucleotides, which contains phosphorous, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
15. Saturated fats are known to be in
solid form at room temperature, and are packed together. On the other hand,
unsaturated fats are known to be in liquid form at room temperature, and are
16. Cell is known to be the smallest
living unit of life.
17. The cell membrane is composed of
phospholipid bilayer, and its job is to act as protective layer from the
18. The cell membrane protects the cells
from its surroundings. The nucleus contains the genetic materials needed such
as DNA molecules for the formation of chromosomes. The function of the nuclear
envelope is to provide compartmentalization with its double membrane
structures. The chromatin packs the DNA inside the nucleus and protects its
structures and sequence. The function of the nucleolus is to organize ribosomes
in the nucleus. Mitochondria is the manufacturer of energy by cellular
respiration. Rough ER is in charge for storage and transportation. Ribosomes
are responsible for creating proteins. Smooth ER is responsible for making
lipids. Chloroplast is responsible for glucose production. Golgi Apparatus is responsible
for packing and sending out concentrated proteins and fats. Golgi body acts as
gateway so that protein or fat could go in the cytoplasm. Lysosomes have
enzymes responsible for digestion.
19. Apoptosis is a mechanism of cell
deaths to control its growth.
20. A telomere is a protective cap towards
the end of each chromosome, which triggers to be shorter every time a cell
undergoes through a cell division until it is short enough, so the cell would
die. The telomeres in cancer has its cells which can regrow itself after its
21. Cancer is the unlimited cell growth
and multiplication without limits. The proto-oncogenes turn normal cells into
cancer ones after mutation, which ultimately becomes cancer. Normal cells
actually listen to its surrounding cells and they stop growing when in contact
inhibition, while cancer cells just continue to multiply without boundaries.
22. Tissue is composed of a group of
cells doing the same function. Organ is a structure composed of many tissues.
Organ system is a system composed of organs doing the same work for a common
23. The four types of tissues in the
human body are epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue. Epithelial is
a tissue that covers the surface of the body and cavities. Connective tissue
acts as for support and protection. Muscle tissues produces the force to move
structures of the body. Nervous tissue is the transmitter for information and
acts as a sensor.
24. The types of epithelial tissues are
simple squamous, cuboidal, columnar, stratified squamous, cuboidal, columnar
and transitional. Simple squamous would be air sacs. Simple cuboidal would be
kidney tubules. Simple columnar would be large intestine. Stratified squamous
would be esophagus. Stratified cuboidal would be salivary glands. Stratified
columnar would be male urethra. Transitional would be urinary bladder.
Pseudostratified columnar would be trachea.
25. Connectives are grouped into loose
connective and dense connective tissues. Loose connective is composed of
areolar, reticular, and adipose. Dense connective is composed of irregular,
regular, and elastic. Loose CT areolar hold organs in contact, and would be any
tissue under epithelia. Reticular tissue performs scaffolding for bone marrows
and lymph nodes, and is located in the spleen. Adipose tissue functions a
nutrient storage located in the breast. Irregular tissue functions as container
of fibroblasts and collagens and is located on the dermis of the skin. Regular
tissue functions as a glue for tendons and ligaments.
26. Elastic tissue functions a malleable
support in the ear. Skeletal muscle is any muscle attached to the skeleton and
bone. Cardiac muscle is found on of the cardiac region such as heart. Smooth
muscle is found on intervertebral disc.
27. The nervous tissue acts as the
messenger that signals and delivers information to different parts of the body
such as brain.
A. Nervous tissue is made up of
neurons and neuroglial cells.
B. Bone tissue is made up of ossein
collagen and different types of salts.
C. Cartilage tissue is made up of
D. Blood tissue is made up of
important cells such as red, white cells, plasma, and platelets.
E. Areolar tissue is made up of collagen,
elastic and reticular fibers.
F. Epidermis is made up of
stratified squamous cells.
G. Globlet cells secrete mucus.
30. The main two layers of the skin are epidermis, and dermis. The
epidermis is primarily composed of epithelial cells, while the dermis is
composed of dense proper irregular connective tissue. The epidermis is made up
of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissues.
31. The dermis contains the following
structures: glands, blood, follicles and nerves.
32. The dermis has papillary, and
reticular layers. Papillary is made up of areolar CT that gathers fluids in the
capillaries. Reticular is mostly made up of irregular dense CT and a few
adipose that acts as skin strengthener.
33. The hypodermis is made up of many
layers such as Stratum corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, and basale
34. The 1st degree burn
affects the epidermis. The 2nd degree burn affects epidermis and
some dermis. The 3rd degree burn affects the epidermis, dermis, and
hypodermis. The first degree burn in epidermis is painless because it does not
burn or affect any nerve tissues.
35. The Melanin, Carotene, and Hemoglobin
are the main pigments affecting the skin color.
36. A. Integumentary helps develop the
external body layers such as skin hair or nails.
B. Skeletal system are composed of
bones, cartilages, and bone marrows designed to provide a major support
foundation for the whole body.
C. The muscular system is made up of
muscles designed to maintain posture, and create movements.
D. The nervous system is made up of
brain, spinal cord, and nerves designed to relay information through the parts
of the body.
E. Endocrine system is mostly made
up of different glands for hormonal secretion and regulation.
F. Cardiovascular system is mainly
made up of heart, blood, and vessels designed to keep the oxygen, and carbon
dioxide flowing in and out of the body. It also transports nutrients in and
outside of the body.
G. Lymphatic system is mostly made
of lymphatic vessels, spleen and thymus, which are designed to control the
debris, fluids, and alien substances in the body.
H. Respiratory system is mainly made
up of nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, lungs, and alveoli in order to
keep the blood with oxygen, and maintain the gas exchanging in the lungs.
I. The digestive system is made up
of stomach, and its partnering intestines, and related to digestion in order to
absorb the necessary nutrients and keep the waste out of the body.
J. The urinary system is primarily
made up of kidneys, urinary bladders, urethra, and ureters designed to take
away waste from the blood, and regulate the concentrations of the pH level by
K. The reproductive system is
primarily made of up sexual organs in which the goal end is to produce sperm
and eggs for fertilization, and reproduction.