1. Introduction During the latest years of XX

1. Introduction

During the latest years of XX century, two important phenomena
have been emerging: urbanization and information and communication technologies
(e.g. ICT). Eighties’ and nineties’ technological advancement and economic
growth contributed to increase well-being, mainly in the greater urban centers.
This fostered the urbanization leading to a progressive abandonment of rural
areas towards greater cities and metropolis, which can offer many opportunities
in terms of work, education, social life and so on. People strong inclination
to concentrate in cities generated both positive and negative effects at global
level 1. Due to advancements in communication
and computing technologies, smart cities have become a main innovation agenda
of research organizations, technology vendors, and governments. To make a city
smart, a strong communications infrastructure is required for connecting smart
objects, people, and sensors.  Smart
cities rely on wireless and mobile technologies for providing services such as
healthcare assistance, security and safety, real-time traffic monitoring, and
managing the environment, to name a few. Such applications have been a main
driving force in the development of smart cities. Without the appropriate
communication networks, it is really difficult for a city to facilitate its
citizens in a sustainable, efficient, and safer manner/ environment.
Considering the significance of mobile and wireless technologies for realizing
the vision of smart cities, there is a need for conducting research to further
investigate the standardization efforts and explore different issues/challenges
in wireless technologies, mobile computing, and smart environments 2.

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A.    Smart City

A smart city is an urban area that uses different types of
electronic data collection sensors to supply information which is used to
manage assets and resources efficiently 3.

 

Figure1.
Smart
City 4

B. Mobile Communication, Wireless
Network Technology & Internet for Smart Cities.

Mobile communication
is evolving day by day and has become a must have for everyone. Mobile
communication is the exchange of voice and data using a communication
infrastructure at the same time regardless of any physical link. Mobile
Communications important play in smart city development. Generally Mobile
Communication is based in wireless network technology. Smart
cities are becoming reality, due to the enormous research into the technology
enablers and development of the Internet of Things (IoT) enabling a multitude
of applications, which are built around various types of sensors. To manage the
increased population of cities, there is a need to have more sustainable,
environmentally-, and economically-friendly smarter cities and technologies. Communication within cities involves multiple
aggregations and access networks that can be either public or private. A city
may gather data from smart devices and sensors embedded in the roadways, power
grids, buildings, and other assets. It shares that data via a smart
communications system that is typically a combination of wired and wireless
networks. It then uses smart software to create valuable information and
digitally enhanced services such as health care assistance, security and
safety, real-time traffic monitoring, and managing the environment.
Potential topics include but are not limited to the following 5

·       
Resource and network management in smart cities

·       
Wireless Networking for crowd sensing applications in smart cities

·       
Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms for wireless networks in smart
cities

·       
Integration and coexistence of technologies and networks for smart
cities

·       
Mobile Traffic analytics for smart cities applications

·       
Interoperability between heterogeneous networks of smart cities

·       
Smart applications for smart cities

·       
Communication architectures for audio and video sensors in smart
cities

·       
Energy-aware wireless protocols and algorithms for smart cities

·       
Sensing technologies and applications for smart cities

·       
Wireless networks for smart city surveillance and management

·       
Experimental network measurements and characterization of smart
cities data traffic

·       
Cooperative and smart sensing techniques

·       
Sensor deployment, placement, and control and management issues

·       
Experimental results, prototypes, and test beds for smart cities

·       
Security issues and solutions for privacy in smart cities

·       
Role of intelligent transportation in smart cities

·       
Big data analytics for smart networks

·       
Cognitive networks and IoT for smart cities

·       
Smart recovery of incomplete or missing data in IoT for smart
cities

·       
Mobile edge computing (or fog computing) in smart networks

·       
Smart grid in wireless smart cities

·       
Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Functions
Virtualization (NFV) for smart cities

·       
Future internet architectures and smart cities

Information and
communication are keys to the intelligent city of tomorrow. Communication, data
exchange and interconnectedness are the basis for all other key subjects of the
smart city. The modern city is based on a new communication concept that
combines the traditional, separate communication infrastructures from sensor
networks to information networks and mobile communication 6

 

C.
Internet of Things ( IoT).

Figure2. An
Example of IoT 7

 

Figure3. Elements
of IoT 7

 

D. Environmental Pollution.

Generally,
the environmental pollution or changes has been defined as presence of
substances in the environment that can causes instability, disorder, harm or
discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms. Environmental pollution
from mobile communication is very harmful for human and animals. radiation from
communication technology which is very dangerous. This paper is based on saving
from radiation pollution that has the major cause of many health issues in
human beings. These polluted substances usually result from mobile tower and
other wireless machines. Radiation pollution is one of the major issues for
health of humans, so the free radiation pollution is basic necessity for good
health.

Types of radiation

Radiation is classified as being ionizing or
nonionizing. Both types can be harmful to humans and other organisms 8.

a)     Nonionizing radiation

Nonionizing radiation is relatively
long-wavelength electromagnetic radiation, such as radio waves, microwaves,
visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, and very low-energy electromagnetic
fields. Nonionizing radiation is generally considered less dangerous than
ionizing radiation. However, some forms of nonionizing radiation, such as
ultraviolet, can damage biological molecules and cause health problems.
Scientists do not yet fully understand the longer-term health effects of some
forms of nonionizing radiation, such as that from very low-level
electromagnetic fields (e.g., high-voltage power lines), although the evidence
to date suggests that the risks are extremely small 8.

b)     Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation is the short wavelength radiation or
particulate radiation emitted by certain unstable isotopes during radioactive
decay. There are about 70 radioactive isotopes, all of which emit some form of
ionizing radiation as they decay from one isotope to another. A radioactive
isotope typically decays through a series of other isotopes until it reaches a
stable one. As indicated by its name, ionizing radiation can ionize the atoms
or molecules with which it interacts. In other words, ionizing radiation can
cause other atoms to release their electrons. These free electrons can damage
many biochemical, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (including DNA).
If intense, this damage can cause severe human health problems, including
cancers, and even death. Ionizing radiation can be either short-wavelength
electromagnetic radiation or particulate radiation. Gamma radiation and
X-radiation are short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation. Alpha particles,
beta particles, neutrons, and protons are particulate radiation. Alpha
particles, beta particles, and gamma rays are the most commonly encountered
forms of radioactive pollution. Alpha particles are simply ionized helium
nuclei, and consist of two protons and two neutrons. Beta particles are electrons,
which have a negative charge. Gamma radiation is high-energy electromagnetic
radiation 8.

2. Paper Motivation.

In this paper, our main motivation on the side effects of
Mobile Communications. It’s important for people to reach this information that
nowadays the mobile radiation is getting so much damage. Here, we want to aware
make people of related problems of mobile radiation.  

3. Benefits of Mobile Telecommunications for Smart cities
Environment.

Mobile
communication systems play a very important role in smart cities. They must be
highly reliable and available as well as flexible, economical, and
environmentally conscious. To satisfy these difficult requirements, Hitachi is
accelerating its research and development of new telecommunication systems for
smart cities.

 

Figure4 Telecommunication Systems in Smart Cities 9

Mobile communication systems connect together all
the elements that make up a smart city to provide services seamlessly using
most appropriate communication technologies.

The basic Advantages of MCT

·      
Easy
Communication

·      
Easy
Connection with new technology and Social Media

·      
Help in
Business

·      
Helpful in
Emergency

 

4. Mobile Communication’s Effects on Smart Cities
Environment.

We all know that Mobile Communication Technology is
constantly increasing in the world because it has made our lives easier. Radiation
of mobile phones has a profound effect on human health and environment. Most
people in the world use a mobile phone, so the radiation of the mobile phone
has become a topic of discussion. Some people believe that the mobile phone
that uses electromagnetic radiation causes health damage to the human organism.
According to the World Health Organization, May 31, 2011, using mobile phones
for long periods of time can be harmful.1011. Scientists have classified
mobile phone radiation as “possibly carcinogen for humans”. Both
mobile phones and coffee have been categorized as class 2b with carcinogens.
This list has been received by some
new studies that the connection between the use of mobile phones and the tumor
between the brain and the salivary gland has been found. According to the 2009
Meta Vestration of Lenarth Hurdel and Uskay colleagues, Which was done on
eleven students, according to which people who use mobile phones for more than
ten years, the risk of brain tumor doubles.

1)    
How much
radiation is there?

Microwave
radiation is caused by electromagnetic waves, whose frequency is 1000 to 3000
MHz. Microwave ovens, ACs, wireless computers, cordless phones and other
wireless devices also generate radiation. But due to the ever increasing use,
near and close to the body, mobile radiation can prove to be the most
dangerous. Mobile radiation comes in two ways, from mobile towers and mobile
phones

2)    
Mobile
tower or phone, with whom more damage?

Mobile phones are more close to us, so it
should be more harmful, but more trouble comes from the tower because we do not
use mobile continuously, whereas the towers are constantly spreading radiation
round the clock. If we talk about hour on the mobile, we get 23 hours to
compensate for the damage done, while the people living near the tower live in
the Jodi of the continuous waves. If there is a parallel tower, then people
living in it may start to have health related problems within 2-3 years.

 

3)     Which area of ??mobile tower damages most?The 300 meter area of ??the mobile tower has the highest radiation. Most waves come out in front of antenna. Obviously, the damage towards the front is even higher, compared to the back and down. In the damage caused by the mobile tower, it also matters that the house is in front of the antenna on the tower or behind. Similarly, distance is also very important. There is a radiation of more than 100 times in the tower’s one meter area. The more antenna will be on the tower, the radiation will be as much

 

 

4)    
Important effects on health are given below or
given below:

a.      Many harmful expanses
of the mobile phone are used. The cell used in the manufacture of mobile phones
is cadmium, lithium, copper, lead, zinc and mercury, which are considered to be
poisonous. Due to the dissolution of these harmful substances and soil rust,
the soil becomes polluted, apart from this, the land also makes the water
poisonous. Not just mobile phones, but their production also has many negative
effects on the environment. The
production of new mobile phones is also Karak for climate change and greenhouse
effect. Grinding Hauls Gasses can be sprayed up to about ninety percent of the
recycling of mobile phones.

b.     Apart from this, the use of mobile phones can cause many parts of the body to cause mein pain. Due to fast delivery of e-mails and messages, pain and swelling of the joints are felt. The pain in the back is due to the use of mobile too.

c.      The use of mobile
causes the temperature of the brain to fluctuate. Due to radiation arising from
mobile phones, the temperature in the brain decreases.

d.     By the way, there is
not even complete information about the bad effect on the health of mobile
phone towers completely so far. But according to some reports mobile phone
tower can have many types of health loss like! Abnormal increase in cells,
mastitis tumors, deficiency in the immune system capacity, decrease in sleep
and anxiety, disorders associated with blood cancer in children, sterility and
abortion and many other types of health.12131415.

 

5. Smart Cities
Environment protection from Mobile Communication’s dangerous Effects

Mobile
Communications Technology is specially role plays in smart city development. MCTs
are increasing day by day. Losses from this are increasing day by day, which is
very harmful to our environment and we have discussed above the losses caused
by this. If we don’t play attention to this side one day we will lose our
creation, so we can’t ignore its loss. The First Question to us that how to protect
of Environmental from MCT’s dangerous?

We
consider some points below for smart cities environmental safety:

A.    Environmental monitoring:

 Fixed and mobile sensors gather observations
on several phenomena related to the environmental conditions such as
temperature, relative humidity, noise, air pollution, or electromagnetic fields.

B.    The Basics technical help idea for
Environmental Protection:

Generally,
major problem is radiation from MCs at Current time.

o  
Control on Mobile Communication

o  
Limitations on Mobile Tower

o  
Minimum Wireless Network Tower in Smart
Cities.

o  
Develop new radiation less technology

o  
Where there is excessive radiation, the
tower should be removed.

o  
Use loudspeakers and Headphones when you’re
talking in your mobile.

o  
If we use
Bluetooth, then radiation in our body will be a bit more arbore if Bluetooth
turns on, then the 10 mt watts power will be unresponsive. Along with the power
out of the mobile, this body will also be reabsorbing. In this way, if you talk
about Bluetooth then keep the mobile away from your body. It’s good to have a
distance of one foot.

o  
We must
have knowledge of mobile radiation effects every time.

 

C.    How long the use of mobile?Use of mobile phones for 24 minutes throughout the day is compulsory for health. It is also important that you’re mobile’s SAR what is the value? Talking to more SAR values ??on phones less often is more harmful than talking more on phones with low SAR values. The use of landline phones for long-term negotiation is an easy way to avoid radiation. It can also understand that use of landline phones in the office or home. Avoid using cordless phones.D.    How Can Mobile Phone Radiation Reduce?You can also apply ferrite bead (a device that absorbs radiation) with your phone to reduce radiation. The use of mobile phone radiation shield is also a good way. Nowadays, many companies are selling such equipment in the market. Can use radiation block applications Actually, these are special types of software that can block WiFi, Blue-tooth, GPS or antenna for a specific time.E.    How to avoid the tower radiation?These measures can be effective in avoiding mobile radiation:o   As far as possible from the Mobile Tower, stay away.o   Speak to reduce power of antenna from tower companyo   If there is a mobile tower at the front of the house then keep the window of the house closed-door.o   Radiation detectors help in radiation level at home Spend less time in areas where radiation is high

6. Conclusion

In
this paper, we analyzed the solutions currently available for the
implementation of urban Mobile Communications. This paper, the urban
environment represents a perfect ecosystem to start a new common approach in
the design and deployment of MC infrastructures and services. Access to the
right information at the right time allows citizens, service providers and city
government to make better decisions. Mobile communications are having major
economic impacts, and from these flow a wide range of both positive and
negative impacts on the environment. In general, effects on the design and
operation of products and services have a positive environmental impact.
However, there is great uncertainty about the effects on consumer behavior,
aggregate demand and the composition aft economic growth whether growth is
substantially de materialized or not. It seems highly likely, though currently
impossible to confirm, that there will be a mismatch between opportunities for
greater environmental effidency at the micro-level and resource use and
environmental impacts in the aggregate. we should work  with a new strategy. Keeping in mind the
environment of smart city, we should develop the technology that is
environmentally friendly and meet the criteria. Finally, future research
directions and open problems regarding mobile communication have been
presented.

References

1. Caragliu, A., Del
Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2011). Smart cities in Europe. Journal of
UrbanTechnology, 18(2), 65–82.

2.Enabling Mobile and
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Guizani, Ammar Rayes, Jaime Lloret, Guangjie Han, Wael Guibene)

3. Matt Hamblen, Just
what IS a smart city?, computerworld.com, Oct 1, 2015

4. https://thenorteasttoday.com

5.https://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcmc/si/972967

6.http://www.ict-smart-citiescenter.com/en/smart-cities/kommunikation/

7.CHUNSHENG ZHU1, LEI
SHU2, “Green Internet of Things for Smart World” Digital Object Identifier
-2015

8.http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/radioactive-pollution-0#A

9. Kazuko Hamaguchi,
Yuanchen Ma, May Takada, Takayuki Nishijima, Takanori Shimura- Hitachi Review
Vol. 61 (2012), No. 3 “Telecommunication Systems in Smart Cities”

10.IARCCLASSIFIES RADIOFREQUENCY
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AS POSSIBLY CARCINOGENIC TO
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11. “What are the
health risks associated with mobile phones and their base
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12.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phone#cite_note-58

13.”Do mobile
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14. Interlandi, Jeneen
(2007-12-19). “How Safe Are Cell Phones?”

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