1 of assets cost effectively. Assets are things

1             
Introduction

Asset management is a systematic process of
developing, operating, maintaining, upgrading and disposing of assets cost
effectively. Assets are things that have a value to an organisation.  There are many processes and tools in the
asset management system which can be used to manage assets. FMECA is a popular
tool that is used asset management. FMEA was originally developed by NASA to
improve and verify the reliability of space program hardware. The military standard
MIL-STD-1629 establishes requirements and procedures for performing FMECA.

In the present situation, LTA have bought
over the assets from SMRT and asset management will be a critical process in
the handover/takeover of SMRT assets.

1.1       Scope

The scope of this document is to explain the
asset management in SMRT and to show examples of the FMECA process. Any other processes
which are also tools for asset management will not be discussed.

1.2      
Methodology

The assignment is about asset management. As
in the project team, we deal with FMECAs in out design documents. As FMECA is a
commonly used tool, information can be easily found. The FMECA process are
systematic and not complicated so we just have to input the information in and
form the FMECA worksheet. However the results may be subjective as different
people have different views.

1.3      
Assignment Structure

In section 1 above, we give a brief introduction of the
whole assignment. In section 2, we explain what are the tangible, non-tangible
assets and critical assets and also explained that assets value will depreciate
over time. In section 3, we explained what asset management is, what its
benefits are and what the SMRT asset management policy is. Section 4 talks
about what is RCM and reliability. Section 5 explains the FMECA and it shows
the processes of how to identify and tabulate the FMECA worksheet.

2             
 

2             
What Is Asset?

An asset is an item
or property that has a potential or physical value owned by an individual or
company. There are 2 types of assets, which is tangible assets and non-tangible
assets. Critical asset is also one of the asset that will have a great impact to
the individual or organisation.

2.1       Tangible
Asset

Tangible assets are
physical assets that are fixed. Tangible assets can be things like equipment, machineries,
buildings, lands, etc.

2.2       Non-Tangible
Asset

Non-tangible assets
are non-physical assets but it still have a value. Non-tangible assets can be
things like patents, trademarks, copyrights, goodwill, brands, etc.

2.3       Critical
Asset

Critical asset is an
asset that if destroyed, degraded or unavailable will have a great potential impact
to the functionality or operability of the individual or organisation. The
tangible assets in SMRT are its critical assets. If it is unavailable, it will
render the train service unavailable. SMRT critical assets includes:

·     
Stations and buildings

·     
Infrastructures

·     
Trains

·     
Rolling Stock

·     
Power Systems

·     
Communications Systems

·     
Supervisory Control Systems

Smaller items like
computers, spares, printers, etc. are also considered assets.

2.4       Value
Over Asset Life

The value of an asset
can change over its asset life. Depreciation would be a suitable word to
describe the drop in asset value over time. Depreciation can be described as
“the systematic and rational allocation of the acquisition cost of an asset,
less its estimated salvage value or residual value, over the assets estimated
useful life.”

3             
Asset Management

Asset management is
a systematic process of developing, operating, maintaining, upgrading and
disposing of assets cost effectively. In SMRT’s engineering point of view,
asset management is the managing of assets to achieve the greatest and the
process of monitoring and maintaining the systems to provide the best possible
service to users.

Asset management is
used to manage costs, risks and performance. Examples of costs are expensive
systems, life cycle costs and staying competitive, etc. Risks can be the safety
impact, economy cost and public trust, etc. Performance are outcome, manpower,
aging population, innovation, etc. Balancing of costs, opportunities and risks
against performance of assets can achieve organisation objectives.

 

PERFORMANCE

RISK

COST

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1 – Balancing of Cost,
Performance and Risks

3.1       Benefits
of Asset Management System

The benefit of asset
management system is to enable the organisation to achieve its objectives
through effective and efficient management of its assets.

3.2       SMRT
Trains Asset Management Policy

SMRT follows the ISO
55001 based Asset Management System. The objective of SMRT asset management is
to ensure the conditions of the assets over the life cycle are able to meet all
regulatory requirements and system performances necessary to support SMRT’s
Mission.

 

Figure 2 – SMRT Train Asset
Management Policy

 

 

 

 

4             
Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM)

Reliability Centred
Maintenance (RCM) is the organisation level maintenance strategy implemented to
optimise the maintenance program of the company. It generally seeks to improve
the reliability of the system through the safe minimum level of maintenance.
The result of an RCM will require implementation on the agreed maintenance
strategy on each asset. Basically it means that what must be done to ensure
that the system will continue to function as required. The objective of RCM is
to maintain the equipment to achieve the target reliability of performance. It
is to achieve optimum life-cycle cost and performance risk.

4.1       What
is Reliability?

Reliability is the
probability that an item or equipment will continue to function its duty
without failure over a designated period of time.

The bathtub curve is
often used in describing reliability. It describes a particular form of the
hazard function which comprises of three parts:

·     
Decreasing failure rate

·     
Constant failure rate

·     
Increasing failure rate

Figure 3 – ‘Bathtub’ Curve
(Wikipedia 2017)

 

4.2       RCM
Process

The SMRT RCM process determines the most
effective maintenance approach by employing the following:

·     
Preventive Maintenance (PM)

·     
Corrective Maintenance (CM)

·     
Risk Based Maintenance (RBM)

·     
Condition Based Maintenance (CBM)

4.2.1  
Preventive Maintenance (PM)

Preventive Maintenance
(PM) is to carry out periodic or continuous maintenance to the system or
equipment to ensure that they are functioning as per required and not degraded
to an unacceptable condition. PM can be time, number of usage or mileage based.

4.2.2  
Corrective Maintenance (CM)

Corrective Maintenance
(CM) is to identify, isolate and rectify a fault so that the failed equipment or
system can be restored to an operational condition within limits for continue
of operations.

4.2.3  
Risk Based Maintenance (RBM)

The Risk Based
Maintenance (RBM) is one of the approach that SMRT uses for its maintenance
strategy. The concept of risk based maintenance is to find the right balance to
reduce cost, improve reliability and integrity. It determines the inspection
frequency based on the assessed risk level and understanding of the
degradation.

4.2.4  
Condition Based Maintenance (CBM)

The Condition Based
Maintenance (CBM) is the use of monitoring tools to monitor the degradation of
the equipment. It monitors the actual condition of the system or equipment to
decide what maintenance needs to be done to avoid the consequences of that
failure.

Some of the condition
monitoring systems implemented by SMRT are:

·     
Linear Variable Displacement Transducer (LVDT) –
refer to as 3rd rail sag detection system, it monitors the overall
alignment of the power providing third rail.

·     
RailVision – Uses a combination of image capture
and detection system to identify faults on a track, like missing fasteners,
wheelburns and other rail related defects.

·     
Multi-Function Vehicles (MFV) – Uses a rail flaw
detection system to detect internal cracks within the rail in real time.

·     
Laser Trolley – Used for monitoring of ballasts.

 

 

5             
Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis
(FMECA)

Failure Mode Effects
and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) is a tool for RCM. FMECA models the system
while RCM is a process to decide on the appropriate maintenance strategy for
the modelled process. It is a systematic procedure for analysis of a system to
identify the potential failure modes, their causes and effects on system
performance. Each potential failure mode is ranked accordingly to the combined
influence of severity and probability of occurrence. The FMECA is a good
evaluation tool where critical areas are readily identified and it provides
foundation for further analysis.

The steps for applying
FMECA are as follows:

·     
Define the asset to be analysed

·     
Define the Indenture Level

·     
Define the Functional Block Diagram (FBD)

·     
Identify the failure modes, causes and effects

·     
Identify the failure detection

·     
Criticality analysis

·     
Complete the FMECA worksheet

·     
Complete the FMECA report

5.1       FMECA
Process

The
objective is to assess any critical functional failure or single point failure
that could have safety or reliability impact to the overall system. In the
following steps, we will see an example on the creation of the FMECA based on
the Multi-Service Transport Platform (MSTP) system which is going to replace
the existing Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) system, which is one of the
sub-systems in the Communication Backbone Network (CBN) for the Main Line. The
FMECA will determine the existing design features and that redundancy
considerations are adequate, safe and reliable. However FMECA are based on the
following conditions:

·     
Human error is not considered

·     
Only Line Replaceable Units (LRU) units are
considered

·     
System maintenance tools (SMT) is not part of
the operating equipment, therefore not being assessed

·     
Only random fault is considered

5.1.1  
Define Asset to be Analysed

The
first thing for FMECA is to define the asset, which sub-system and components
to be analysed.

Table 1 – Assets Identified
for FMECA

Asset

Description

Sub-System

MSTP

Component

Power
Supply Module

Component

Optical
Fibre Module

Component

Processor
Module

Component

Traffic
Module

Component

Fan
Module

5.1.2  
Define Indenture Level

The Indenture level shows the level of
subdivision of an item from the point of view of maintenance action. The
different levels will identify the relative complexity of the system. Indenture
level can be either be a table or a diagram.

 

Table 2 – Indenture Level
Table

ID

L1-System

ID

L2-Sub-System

ID

L3-Components

1

CBN

1.1

GPS Clock

 

 

1.2

MSTP

1.2.1

Power Supply

1.2.2

Optical Fibre

1.2.3

Processor

1.2.4

Traffic

1.2.5

Fan

1.3

Rectifier

 

 

 

 

Figure 4 – Indenture Level
Diagram

5.1.3  
Define Functional Block Diagram

After identifying the indenture level, we
will draw the Functional Block Diagram. The functional block diagram will describe
the functions between the input variables and output variables.

Figure 5 – Functional Block
Diagram

 

 

 

 

5.1.4  
Define Failure Modes, Causes and Effects

In this section we will define the failure
modes, causes and effects of the individual modules.

Examples of failure modes:

·        
Intermittent

·        
Overheat

·        
Short
circuit

·        
Corroded

·        
Overload

·        
Crack/Broken

No human errors will be considered.

Examples of Causes:

·        
Design
defect

·        
Manufacturing
defect

·        
Physical
or functional degradation of equipment below limits

·        
Improper
installation

·        
Failure
of external equipment

·        
Overstress
beyond specified limits

·        
Vandalism,
misuse

·        
Interference
from external source

Examples of Effects:

·        
Service
disruption

·        
Train
withdrawal

·        
System
damage

·        
Personal
injury

5.1.5  
Identify Failure Detection

Failure detection is the method by which the
identified fault can be detected.

Examples of failure detection:

·        
Visual
or audible warning devices

·        
Automatic
sensing devices

·        
During
checks, inspections and tests

5.1.6  
Criticality Analysis

The critical analysis will rank each failure
mode identified according to the combined influence of severity classification
and probability of occurrence. It will determine the level of criticality of
the failure mode by combining the failure frequency and severity of the failure
mode. It also determines whether the failure mode is acceptable or not based on
the level of criticality.  Below shows
the criticality template used for SMRT. Based on this template, the results
will be computed on the FMECA worksheet.

Table 3 – SMRT Criticality
Template

5.1.7  
FMECA Worksheet

The FMECA worksheet is the final result of
what is gathered in the FMECA process above. It will list out all the
identified sub-systems and components and compute it into a table.

Table 4 – FMECA Worksheet

 

5.1.8  
FMECA Report

From the FMECA worksheet, we will be able to
tell many things about the system:

·        
which
is the function of each module

·        
what
are the effects and consequences of each failure

·        
what
are the severities

·        
what is
the remedial action required if there is a fault

·        
what
are the mitigations

·        
what
are the maintenance intervals

After
the FMECA worksheet is finalised, the user will come out with a report with all
the recommendations, improvements and PM interval. It will then be submitted to
the Asset Management System Steering Committee for review and approval.

6             
Conclusions

Asset management is an important process
where it is used to manage and balance costs, risks and performance. In reliability,
we can see that in the ‘bathtub’ curve, assets will have hazard functions of decreasing,
constant and increasing failure rates. The RCM process also determines the most
efficient approach by PM, CM, RBM and CBM. The most important part of this
assignment is the FMECA which is a tool of RCM. It is a systematic procedure of
analysis that identifies the potential failures, mitigations and PM intervals.
The FMECA process is also simple and straight forward.

SMRT follows the ISO 55001 Asset Management Policy.
Therefore in SMRT, everybody will plays a role in asset management. Asset
management is not only about assets but also about:

·        
Document,
information and record control

·        
Process
performance measures, risk controls

·        
Internal
audits

·        
Asset
information management

·        
Sub-contractor
liaising and management

·        
HR
(hiring, training)

·        
Management
(Asset Management System Steering Committee)

As a staff in SMRT, I will need to know the
followings:

·        
What is
SMRT Asset Management Policy

·        
Asset Management
objective relevant to me

·        
Asset Management
procedure and information relevant to me

·        
Importance
and performance of SMRT’s Asset Management System

·        
Roles
and responsibilities in Asset Management

·        
Where
to find information related to Asset Management

However in SMRT, there is no team or
business units that is expertise in FMECA, therefore SMRT needs improvement in
this area.