Nucleation is a
first-order transition involving a crossing in phase boundaries. Upon reaching
a new equilibrium phase, thermodynamic stability develops. The phenomenon is universal
occurring in proteins, inorganic and organic processes. We will be focussing on
atmospheric nucleation and its role in cloud condensation. Atmospheric
nucleation is the irreversible aggregation of atomistic particles forming a
cluster/nucleus on attainment of a new phase. The new phase concerns nanoscale
chemistry with macroscopic results: growth. Governing the process is temperature
changes, with pressure as a convex function to allow measurement of the Gibbs
Free Energy of the system. Although the study in this field stretches further
than half a century – the mechanism is still unfinished. It is as though
researching into this field provides a tiny piece of a puzzle of a board that
is continuously evolving. Rendering that tiny piece either being partially
applicable or redundant to the board. Additionally, the nature of the research
into this field is difficult. Researchers have found vibrational frequency of
atoms can act as interference clouding vision into the mechanism of nucleation.

This is due to atomic reactions sharing the same frequency as molecular
vibrations. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics of nucleation
still remains elusive. To current date, researchers cannot predict the exact
moment and location of nucleation.