5.1.8 Starter motor The function of starter motor

5.1.8 Starter motor


The function of
starter motor is to start the engine by powering the flywheel to rotate. Electric
power from battery powers the rotation until the combustion sequence takes over
and runs the engine. The engine needs the initial push from the starter motor
to begin its combustion process after which the starter motor is disengaged
leaving the engine to run by itself. 46


5.1.9 Spark plugs & Fuel injector


A spark plug is a
device fit into the top of the cylinder head of petrol engine. The fuel
injector is a device fit into the top of cylinder head of a diesel engine.  The function of the spark plug and the fuel
injector is to initiate combustion. The spark plug ignites the air-fuel mixture
inside the petrol engine cylinder through an electrical spark by the electrical
energy supplied to it. Spark plugs consist of an insulated electrode connected
to the ignition coil. 47 The air-fuel mixture of petrol engines used to be
governed by a carburetor. The1980s marked the phase-out of carburetors paving
the way for fuel injector results in better efficiency of combustion while
reducing toxic emissions. Fuel injection in petrol engines is commonly carried
out through Multi Point Fuel Injection (MPFI). The MPFI is an advanced version
of carburetor. The fuel injectors vaporize the fuel and mix it with air and
sent to the cylinder, each cylinder is treated individually by the system. A
computerized system made from microcontroller does the mechanical job of
carburetor electronically making it extremely precise and efficient by metering
and mixing the fuel in the right ratios. 48



Diesel engines
i.e. Compression ignition engines consists of a fuel injector instead of a
spark plug. The fuel injection is done by a system that consists of feed pump, fuel
filter, fuel injection pump, high-pressure pipe and injection nozzle. The feed
pump sucks the fuel from the tank, the fuel is filtered through the fuel filter
and is sent to the fuel injection pump pressurizes the fuel to high pressure
that is sent to the injection nozzle through the high pressure pipe. The
injection nozzle injects the fuel into the cylinder that already contains
heated compressed air and the combustion process is started. 49


5.1.10 Engine Control system


Post the
emissions laws that increasingly became stricter, it became essential to
implement electronic systems into the car to regulate the air fuel mixture to
control the engine for improved efficiency and produce lesser emissions. The Engine
Control Unit (ECU) is a powerful computer inside the car to control the engine.

The ECU obtains the required information of the status of the car from the
sensors. The ECU monitors the system using the information from the sensors and
controls the inputs to the system, managing various parameters such as the
emissions and fuel economy of the engine. The ECU decides on the best spark
timing and duration of opening of fuel injector etc. 50


5.1.11 Exhaust system


The exhaust
system is a crucial element governing the emission levels of the internal
combustion engine. The exhaust system consists of the exhaust manifold,
turbocharger (an optional component to help increase the inlet pressure of the
engine), catalytic converter and silencer. The exhaust manifold is made of cast
iron or stainless steel. The function of exhaust manifold is to transfer the
exhaust gas from the multiple cylinders of the engine to the turbocharger or to
the exhaust pipe. The turbocharger is a turbine placed along the exhaust gas with
a function to convert the pressure of engine exhaust gas into mechanical energy
through the rotation of the turbine, this turbine further drives the compressor
connected to the inlet manifold to increase the pressure of the inlet gases that
improves engine performance. The turbocharger is of 2 types axial and radial
flow. In the axial-flow type, flow through the turbine is in the axial
direction. In radial-flow type, gas inflow is directed into the center from
outside. The radial-flow turbine is the most commonly used type in cars. 51
Post the turbo charger the exhaust gas is sent through a catalytic converter
present inside the silencer. A catalytic converter is made of a stainless-steel
casing that houses a metallic or ceramic substrate. This substrate has a number
of fine channels running along its length. The surface of the substrate is
coated with precious metals such as platinum, palladium and rhodium. It is
these precious metals that are the actual catalysts initiating the chemical
reactions that conversation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide, nitrogen
oxides into nitrogen and oxygen, hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide and water,
the nitrogen oxides back into nitrogen and oxygen. 52


5.1.12 Cooling & lubricating system


The combustion
engine consist of many moving parts, due to continuous movement of metallic
parts over each other, the parts are subjected to intense wearing and
generation of heat from friction. The engine also produces enormous heat from
combustion (upto 1600 °C).

For the smooth operation of engine these parts has to be cooled and lubricated.

The lubricating and cooling mechanism is designed to supply lubricating oil to
the rubbing surfaces of an engine at correct pressure and temperature. 45


The above parts
and components are the key part categories of the IC engine. These parts are
supported by a number of minor parts for the functioning of the engine. The
suppliers of the above parts are again segmented based on their expertise.

These suppliers hold the dominant expertise in metal manufacturing techniques
of casting, molding, forming, surface treatment and also case specific
expertise in electronics and materials. We view the electric car part
components to compare and analyze which areas the suppliers of the above parts
are impacted.