A ethical issues with the stem cell research.

A Utilitarian ethicist will focus on
the result. Our textbook defines Utilitarianism as “the view that an action is
right when it produces the greatest balance of pleasure over pain among all
people it affects” (Pg. 337). A Utilitarian will argue the fact that since the
result of the procedure is to help cure diseases and the potential of the
bleeding and other complications listed above are minimal, the results will
outweigh the possible complication. A Kantian ethicist will however disagree
with the Utilitarian. Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative states that “the
moral principal that you should always act in accordance with some general rule
which could apply to everyone’s action all the time” (Pg. 334). A Kantian
ethicist will argue that if the rule embryo fertilization is acceptable then
abortion and parents who dump their babies in dumpsters should be acceptable as
well.

On July 05, 1996, Scottish scientists announced that
they have cloned the first mammal (Dolly the sheep), using a nuclear transfer.
This was done by taking the nucleus with the DNA code of a mature cell and
transferring it to an egg which has had its nucleus removed to create an early
embryo, which is capable of producing a clone of the entire individual from
which it was taken. There are however some ethical concerns or issues when it
comes to cloning. One of them is issue of the moral statues of the organisms
created by cloning. Some argue that a cloned organism, unlike embryo, is not
the result of a fertilization of an egg and a sperm. Others argue that if it is
implanted in a womb, it could possibly go on to full development and be given
birth to. There are also some ethical issues with the stem cell research. One
of them is the medical risk when they retrieve the oocyte. These include bleeding,
infection, complication from anesthesia and ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome.
Some will argue that there are less chances of those risks happening if it is done
by a professional. Others will argue that it puts the woman in danger since
severe hyper ovulation syndrome can require hospitalization or even surgery.

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The totipotent stem cells are the
early embryos and they have the potential to form a complete human being if
placed in a uterus. The pluripotent stem cells are the immature stem cells with
the potential to develop into a mature cell type in the adult skin, lung,
blood, liver, etc, but cannot by themselves form a complete human being if
placed in a uterus. Embryonic stem cells are part of the pluripotent stem cell
and according to medicalnews.net embryonic stem cells “possess the capacity to
divide for long periods and retain their ability to make all cell types within
the organism” (medicalnews.net, 2008). At the embryonic stage, the embryo is
microscopic, a few days old, and is directed to mature into blood vessels blood
precursors, nerve cells and heart and skeletal tissues.

There are billions of cells in the
human body, and they are the building block of our body. They are arranged
according to their tissues and organs. Some examples are the heart, liver, and
brain cells. Most cells usually only have one function and most of them cannot
regenerate when injured or when they die. They are instead replaced by a scar
tissue and that is the reason why the brain or heart functions less well after
a stroke or heart attack. According to stemcell researchfacts.org, a stem cell
is defined as “a “blank” or immature cell, capable of becoming another more
differentiated cell type in the body, such as a skin cell, a muscle cell, or a
nerve cell” (Stemcellresearchfacts.org, 2013). There are several different
types of stem cells that generates from different places in our bodies and are
formed at different times in our lives.

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