ABSTRACT Main causes of child sexual abuse. There


sexual abuse has recently rung an alarm bell on Vietnamese people’s ignorance
of this issue. This paper, based on secondary research, provides basic information
on pedophilia in a hope that people could have all-sided views on this
situation. In particular, three fundamental parts are focused, including main
causes leading to this kind of crime and its negative impacts. It is believe
that child sexual abuse is not only individual’s problem but also one of
serious social evils. Hence, some possible solutions are suggested to punish
pedophiles properly and protect innocent children. Once child sexual abuse is
still neglected, a million of lives would continue to be ruined.I.Introduction

Child sexual abuse or child molestation occurs when
a child is unexpectedly involved in sexual activity with older people. (Rowan, 2006). A large number of  Vietnamese people regard that children who
are sexually abused must be through a sexual contact. In fact, not only
touching gestures but non-touching behaviours such as showing them depraved
photos, giving them aphrodisiac drugs or capturing photos on sensitive parts of
their body are also considered child molestation (Rowan, 2006). Unfortunately,
there has been an alarming increase in the number of sexually abused victims
recently in Vietnam. “Between 2014 and 2016, more than 4,100 cases of sexual
violence against children were reported” (Child sexual abuse on the rise in
Vietnam, 2017), from Vietnamnews, one of the most Vietnamese reliable online
magazines. Therefore, it is high time we joined hands together to protect our
young generations. In the scope of this research, possible factors, negative
impacts and feasible solutions related to this situation would be discussed

of findings

Main causes of child sexual abuse.

There are various reasons that could be found in
most of sexual abuse incidents in Vietnam. First of all, children often receive
inadequate care from parents. It is approximately estimated that parents use up
7.5 in 24 hours dealing with a bunch of work and hectic schedules while they
only spend 47 minutes per week being with their beloved children (Daily mail
reporter, 2011). Especially, in some poor villages in Vietnam, parents whose
youngster is molested are usually industrious workers with a hope to earn
enough for living and have no choice but leave their son or daughter at home
alone (Child sexual abuse on the rise in Vietnam, 2017). Meanwhile, in urban
areas, some families encounter generation gaps. Therefore, family members
hardly discover similar features from others or sit down together for frequent
talk and share. In addition, there is a common misunderstanding among
Vietnamese adults that victims are only females with the percentage of 90%
people asked in a VTV24’s survey (Thuc trang au dam o Vietnam, 2016). In fact, it
is recorded that 1 in 6 boys is prone to be abused just in the average of 9 (Lew,

Secondly, lack in general awareness about this
situation appears to be a great chance for “bluebeards” to get access to
children. Most of kids are less aware of possibly abusing risks coming from
people who are close to them. In their naïve world, their neighbor, uncle,
brother or even father can never do anything to harm them. (Rowan, 2006)

Sadly, they can. In order to fulfil sexual desire,
those cold-blooded evils would betray the victim’s belief and turn him or her
into a slave serving for their sexual purposes. Mr  Nguyen, deputy
director of the criminal police unit under the Ministry of Public Security
claimed that “Most child sex offenders have close relationship with their
victims such as teachers, relatives, or neighbors” (VOA, 2017).

Thirdly, the issue would be more serious due to
silence from victims’ family. Vietnamese belief and opinions are told to be
influenced by some Asian countries such as China, Thailand and Korea. Moreover,
sex is regarded as sensitive or even impolite issue to refer. As a result,
parents whose victim tend to be really scared that their little kid’s future
would end up in rumors and disparage. Rather than reporting the crime, they
often move to another place and pray their youngster could soon suffer from that
nightmare (Thu Van, 2017).

Consequences of child sexual abuse.

According to the article “Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Victims” (2011) from National Center for
Victims of Crime, sexually abuse victims, especially kids may suffer from
severe both short-term and long-term effects. It also pointed out some obvious
consequences such as uncontrollable performance, poor sleeping quality, and atrocious academic achievement at school. Significantly, this kind
of  child maltreatment leads to a number of  unavoidable issues. Regarding psychological aspects, abused children
are more likely to be more vulnerable, depressed and lower self-esteem (Croft, 2016). Some
might cope with depressive disorder for a long period. Daugherty believes that
some appear to have distorted perspective on sex and marriage ( Why Me? Help
for Victims of Child Sexual Abuse (Even if they are adults now), 2006). Meanwhile, others could not overcome obsession, leading
to a dreadful decision – suicide (Daugherty, 2006).

 Turning to another point, an increase in child
abuse could put a heavy strain on medical expenses. National surveys recorded that
40 in 1000 abortion cases in Vietnam are due to molestation
annually (Nguyen, Shiu &Farber, 2016).

In the USA, the government spend  $220 million per day for this issue (Estimated
Annual Cost of Child Abuse and Neglect, 2012). In comparison to a wealthy
nation like the USA which could partly bring the whole scene of how huge
financial budget, Vietnam, a developing country has to face bigger obstacles to
this situation. In fact, there have been a significant number of Vietnamese victims
receiving physical and mental treatment at public hospitals (Nguyen, Shiu &
Farber, 2016). As their pains are really massive, the therapy has become more complicated and costlier than ever.
Besides, Lowy argues “Although only 2% to 10% of abused children become
infected, childhood syphilis, gonorrhea, condylomata acuminata, and chlamydia
trachomatis must always be considered” (Sexually transmitted diseases in
children, 1992). In Vietnam, the number of 
infected kids tends to be lower. However, the risks of  spreading those diseases through unprotected
sexual contacts are possible (Rowan, 2006).

Solutions to child sexual abuse

When it comes to possible approaches for this issue,
many changes are proposed. Initially, gender education should be taught at
schools in order that young students could be provided with sufficient
information and effective methods to protect themselves from child sex
offenders. However, it is not considered as a core subject in most Vietnamese
schools. As a parent, Ms Hoa agreed with the importance of sex education but
suspected its positive results due to inappropriate curriculum (Thu Ha, 2017). Meanwhile,
Mr Hogberg, the Embassy of Sweden in Hanoi stated
in his own hand book that “We adults are used to talking to children
about norms, values, rights and wrongs. We are usually good at explaining that
it is wrong to fight, take other people’s things and say bad words. We explain
how to be a good friend, and we talk about conflict and the dangers of the
Internet. But there are topics that many of us grown-ups find difficult to talk
with children about – such as relationships, the body’s private parts and what
you can and cannot do with the bodies of others.” (Respect! My body, 2017).
Consequently, it is believed that much more effort needs to be put into
developing the quality of sex lessons for children.

Secondly, it is governmental
responsibility introduce tricter law and carry out effective investigation to
give abusers heavy punishment. According to Vietnamese law system, unwanted
sexual contacts happen between men and women while the other is forced to
follow. As a results, those sexual offenders who abuse innocent boys usually take
advantage of phrases “between men and women”  to receive a lighter sentence. Recently, a
Canadian men has been accused of abusing young boys in Hanoi. Surprisingly, he
used to have a record of previous convictions and offences and then be deported
from his motherland (VTV24 reporter, 2017). It still leaves a big question why
Vietnam accepted his immigrating application. In 2014, after many victims
claimed that they were sexually harassed by Minh Beo, a famous actor in Viet
Nam, the People’s procuracy of Vietnam still remained silent. Not only when he abused an American boy did he paid for his
crime. Despite many reports from vitctim’s family, Cao Manh Hung’s case was
delayed in litigation for months. Obviously, it is authorities’irresponsibility
that makes those evils become more ruthless.

the whole community ought to have more positive attitudes towards victims. For
example, rather than be supported to report the crime, a young girl in Thach
That, Hanoi was blamed for having ruined the village’s reputation. ( VTV24
reporter, 2017). We are now living in the 21st century. Hence, some
short-sighted views should be eliminated. It is clear that abused victims have
no faults. Instead, they deserve to be helped and encouraged to reveal those
bluebeards’ mask.

parental contribution to solve this problem is the most valuable. Parents are
suggested to spend much more time for kids and try to become their reliable
friend. Two generations living under one roof should have frequent talks. In
addition, family base should be built on mutual trust. Communication among
family members is more important than anything else (Rowan, 2006).


The analysis above
has shown many aspects of child sexual abuse in Vietnam through some facts,
statistics and main reasons. Child molestation may leave permanent scars in its
victims’ soul. Thus, people are encouraged to make a contribution to reduce as
many abusing incidents as possible. The writer believes that there would be no
place for child abuse if the community is aware of this issue. It is time people
broke the silence to protect our young generations from evil hands of
pedophiles. “Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that
matter” (Martin Luther King, Jr )