According a polis is Political Philosophy. In other

According to the “A Student’s Guide to Political
Philosophy” (Mansfield, H. C., 2001), the author Harvey C. Mansfield talked
about the specific topics of ancient thinkers’ ideas and modern thinkers’ ideas.
In the following essay, I would like to summarize the Mansfield’s ideas and
give my opinion that which one I prefer for.

            To
begin with, the birthplace and venue of ancient Greek philosophy were polis. In
their self-reflection, the philosophers of the polis realized that they would
grasp what was sought for philosophy itself and relate to the life in a
political community. Philosophical thinking revolved around issues related to polis
life. Therefore, philosophy in a polis is Political Philosophy. In other words,
since the beginning of the ancient Greek philosophy, philosophy and politics
have been closely linked. Philosophy is the most fundamental, the most intractable
and the most prolonged study of the principle height and the premise of
political life. It aims to clarify and reflect on the basic problems, basic
concepts and main categories that shape the political science. It is the
oldest, most fundamental and the most classical part of politics. Thus, in this
political philosophy, philosophy and politics are inextricably linked
relationship. In fact, this kind of relationship reflects the connection and
conflicts between the philosopher’s lifestyle
and the citizen’s lifestyle.

            Then,
in different times and in different societies, the political values pursued by
the people are not the same. For modern society, political values are also
varied, such as freedom, equality, rights, collective interests, public welfare
and community goodness and so on. Different political philosophies give
priority to different political values. For example, Liberalism puts freedom
first, communitarianism puts communism good first, and socialism puts equality
first. Some kind of doctrine puts some political value first, which does not
mean that it does not recognize other values. For example, while liberalism places freedom as a priority, it pursues
values such as equality, rights and public welfare, and also except that it
advocates that freedom takes precedence over other values. Therefore, political
philosophy is very complex. One of the reasons is that it is necessary to reconcile
the various values pursued and make it a consistent system.

            After
that, for political philosophy, there are mainly two functions of state theory.
One of the main functions of state theory is to provide legitimacy to the state
and to justify a country of a certain nature. The legitimacy of state theory
can be divided into two levels. At one level, the question is: “Should the
state exist?” It is aimed at anarchy. Anarchists in every age, they think
any country is repressive, so no country will be better. Therefore, political
philosophy should provide arguments for the existence of the state. Such
argument must not only prove that the existence of a state is better than that
of anarchy but also prove that the emergence and existence of a country are
ethical. Another level of the question is “what kind of country is
better”? It is to defend a certain political system in countries of
different political systems. There are various political systems in history,
such as monarchy, constitutional monarchy, and
democracy. In the democratic system, there are also liberal democratic systems,
socialist democracies, republican democracies, and communitarian democracies. Political
philosophy needs to prove which of these political systems is the better or the
best.

            In
addition, another major function of state theory is to limit state power. State
theory provided legitimacy to the nation, but it did not think any country was
legal. Political philosophy defended the country that practiced some kind of
political system, but it offered a moral justification and only those countries
that stood the test of morality deserved this defense. Countries in the modern
sense have enormous power, if there is no
limit to such enormous power, then the state is likely to abuse of power,
violation of personal. In order to limit the power of the state, political
philosophy usually puts forward some principles that no country can violate:
the first is the “principle of freedom,” and the state cannot violate
the various freedoms and rights that every citizen has. These freedoms and
rights are generally governed by the Constitution and various laws and
regulations. The second is the “principle of equality.” The state
should treat all its citizens without distinction of any kind and even
discriminate against certain members of society. Lastly, “the principle of
neutrality”, the state maintains a neutral stance toward people’s pursuit
of various values and the state should not support or oppose others to the
various beliefs and life ideals people have.

            Moreover,
political philosophy started in Socrates, formed in Plato and Aristotle.
From the beginning of Socrates, philosophy has
shifted its focus on the nature of nature to concern for the morality of
mankind itself, and philosophy has become political philosophy. Political
philosophy is concerned with the paradoxical politics of idealism and reality,
theory, and practice, normativity, and transcendence. Sought political philosophy,
it is the result of refractor and lens philosophical reflection and abstraction
out of politics. Only in this way can we explore the political and political
philosophy in a philosophical way, so that we can not only care about the
reality of politics but also jump out of the reality of politics. We can not
only keep a certain distance from the reality of politics but also maintain the
necessary tension to reach the objective objectively and rationally calmly from
a philosophical level to discuss the intricacies of the purpose of political
affairs.

            Besides,
political philosophy started in Machiavelli and continued into the present. Since
Machiavelli, philosophy has shifted from paying attention to virtue to paying
attention to constitutional government and seems to have become political
science different from classical political philosophy. Political philosophy
does not become an empirical political science, nor does it become an abstract
speculative philosophy, but more reflects its different from the latter two
theoretical characteristics and the fundamental way to deal with the problem.
In other words, political philosophy is the philosopher’s philosophical-political behavior, and also
political norms and political justification of philosophical life.

            Furthermore,
I prefer ancient thinker that is Plato. In Plato’s view, eternal justice
reunification in the conceptual world, the unity of human justice in the
country, the fundamental purpose of establishing a perfect country is to
achieve national justice that is the order of all levels, each doing its work. Justice
is essentially a kind of order and harmony. In his opinion, to put an end to
the evil in the world, there must be a correct philosophy that will enable
people to find out all kinds of forms of justice and injustice in private life
and in public life (Sachs, J., 2007). Therefore, Plato tirelessly searched for
an excellent and just political system all his life and constructed his ideal
nation. In this country, the ruler must be a true philosopher so that he can
work hard to establish and uphold the country’s order of justice and
legitimacy. In Plato’s view, no matter in wisdom or morality, in reality, no
one can match Socrates who is the most justice model (Sachs, J., 2007). However, even such a person of justice cannot but
exclude and obliterate him from the unjust reality of society. Then to make the
just people use and reap the rewards of
justice, not only should they focus on their moral efforts and self-discipline.
They must also establish an ideal political system that provides a good social
environment for the realization of justice for individuals.

            In
conclusion, the state is larger than every individual and family, and for the
construction of state and politics, citizens should obey the needs of the
country. The state should not be self-interested but should make every effort
to contribute to the country, leaders should be good at unity so that the city
will be stable. No internal infighting can occur within the country, and there
must be the strength and preparation of a war on the outside so as to guard a
good country so as to exclude all internal and external disturbances and make
the country survive and develop. If the country is the people and the people is the country, will it be possible to turn
individual justice into national justice and realize the great and just
national and nation-wide justice.