Artifact 1: PaperThe first artifact is paper (Appendix A, Artifact 1). Paper is made fine material, combined and pressed closely with damp fibres and cellulose pulp that comes from wood, grasses, rags and than drying them so that they will become flexible sheets of paper. It documented that paper was invented by the Chinese in 105 A.D. However, it indicated and reported that it was invented by the Eastern Han Emperor Hodi by Ts’ai Lun, an official from the Imperial Court (Lee). Ts’ai Lun tore a piece of bark off of the mulberry tree and shredded it into fibers, he than pounded the pieces into a sheet. Eventually, over time the quality of paper improved through using hemp, rags and old fish nets to create the pulp. After the paper had been used in China, the word started to spread throughout the world which was known as the Silk Road. The Chinese people started to utilize paper for writing; in addition, there was a type of printing called woodblock printing. The Woodblock printing began in 600 A.D. and by 740 A.D., the first newspaper was written and sent to print in Chine (Lee). In the early 600 AD, paper making had moved to Korea. From the fibers of rattan, hemp, mulberry, bamboo, rice straw and seaweed, pulp was prepared. A story had been told there was a Korean Monk named Don-cho and in 610 AD, who showed his invention to the Imperial Palace in Japan. And after 60 years later, Buddhism and paper were introduced in Japan and to the Xinjiang area at a very early according to the archaeological records. The paper found at Khao Chang, Loulan, Kusha, Kotan, and Dunhuang sites dated as early as the 2nd. century. The technique eventually reached Tibet around 650 A.D. and then to India after 645 A.D. By the time Hsuan Tsang from China arrived to India in 671 A.D., paper was already widely used there. Paper had a huge impact on the time period. It made China more economic powerful because at they kept it a secret and did not tell anybody or spread the word to other groups, this helped made China more economic powerful everybody wanted this new invention. As time goes on, word spread fast on how to make paper increases and every society had an Idea of how to make paper. Also it helped its government, .It was a way to keep records for your government. They wrote down their laws and policies on paper for their people to follow. Also it had a huge sufficient of how people can communicate with each other even if they do not have the same language. The invention of paper has had a huge impact on human development and human history. Paper has reinvented the way we communicate, record history, and write down literature. It is portable, small, and thin and has triggered the inventions of new cleaning products, printing, and even foods. In everyday life, a person uses paper or reads something on a piece of paper that will tell them something new everyday. The piece of paper is one the greatest invention ever discovered. Artifact 2: The CompassThe second artifact is the compass (Appendix, Artifact Two). The compass is used to help navigate with directions. The first compass was made out of lodestone, a naturally magnetized ore of iron. It was discovered over 2,000 in China during the Han Dynasty and later used by the Song Dynasty. Prior to the compass, travelers had to memorize landmarks when crossing the seas and on a overcast day, the Vikings used crystals to locate when the sun would set. When the compass was invented it improved traveling from land to sea and also assisted with sea trading which developed into the Age of Discovery. Not all compass’s were used for nativating, take the magnetic compass. The Chinese used this for fortune-telling and geomancy.. Some of the Chinese compasses were designed to keep order and harmonize buildings according to the geomantic principles of Feng Shi. Overall, the compass has helped solve mysteries and uncover treasures; it was there for discovery after discovery. It has been a huge impact with coordinating directions and impact on technology in the world. The United States Army, continues to utilize older lensatic card compass designed with magnetized compass dials instead of needles. Today the compass is replaced by a Global Positioning System (GPS). Artifact 3: The WheelThe third artifact is the wheel (Appendix, Artifact Three). In 3500 B.C.E in Mesopotamia. Even thought there isn’t an exact person that discovered the wheel or not mentioned, the Greeks Western philosopy utilized a chariot pulled by horses (Dhwty), that could have started the trend; but no one knows for sure. .The wheel at first wasn’t intended to use for a vehicle but for a pottery wheel. The oldest wheel known was the Solvenian which is 5,100 and 5,350 year ago, even prior to the invention of the wheel, farmers had been farming with siimilar items since 12,000 BCE. Think about how long it would take a farmer to plow his fields with a hoe and horse pulled plow ? There were many inventions prior to the wheel by thousands of years; such as, woven clothes, sewing needles, boats, ropes, basket weaving, and even the flute.The wheel is made in a circular design that has to rotate on an axle bearing. It definitely needs to be connected to a strong and stable platform. In addition, the ends of the axle and the holes in the center of the wheels need to be made perfectly round and smooth. If these items are not made accurately and precise, it could result in the friction between the components, which would not allow the wheel to turn. Another important asset is the axle, it needs to fit snug into the holes of the wheels, yet have enough room to allow the axle to move freely. Although it revolutionised the way people travelled and transported goods, the camel was a much more efficient form of transportation in the desert environment and the wheel had been used for domestic purposes, such as irrigation, and milling. Over human history the wheel was used to help discover new inventions like the invention of the automobile, the wagon, and the airplane making transportation a faster and easier way to get around and transport goods. Artifact 4: Printing Press The fourth artifact I researched was the printing press (Appendix, Artifact Four). The printing press was found in China, no one knows exactly for sure who first discovered the printing press; because in time it was noted that the Chinese monks had started setting up in paper by using a method called block printing. This is a method where wooden blocks are coated to ink and than pressed to sheets of paper. In 1440, a person named, Johannes Gutenberg fine tuned the technology of the printing press and named it the Gutenberg printer. The earlier method of printing was also used in Japan and Korea as early as the eighth century (Palermo). Private printers used both wood and metal blocks to produce the Buddhist and Taoist treatises before the movable type was invented. Speaking of the movable type, the Woodblock printing came in the 11th century, when a Chinese peasant named Bi Sheng (Pi Sheng) developed it. Although Sheng was a commoner and didn’t leave much of a historical trail. Shen Kuo was a genious. He was able develop hundreds of individual characters for printing, he had documented his findings, he was a scholar and a scientist. .The printing press or so called at this time the woodblock printing helped them by printing books and making copy of laws or records. One of the earliest surviving books printed in Sheng method and fashion is an ancient Buddhist text known as “The Diamond Sutra”(Palermo). It was created during the Tang Dynasty in China.Today the printing press is one of the greatest invention in human history. The printing press helped to create newspaper, magazines, and online newspaper as we see today. If not for the printing press, there wouldn’t be books, textbooks, money, etc. that are all valuable resources we use in our daily lives.