Bhavya AhujaResearch PaperJanuary 2018Having a better knowledge of oneself and the world is no guarantee of Happiness and success, but it leads to a fuller use of potentialities external and internal. Emotions are what people feel. Emotions is any conscious experience, described by extraordinary mental action and a specific level of delight or displeasure. In a few hypotheses, cognition is an essential part of emotions. With over a hundred scientific definitions offered by experts there are three elements of connected to it:? – Conscious Experience? – Expression? – Actions of the BodyIt is said that emotions have operated for hundreds of millions of years. The mechanism of expressing emotions must be inherited. They have developed in the same way the features of humans have developed i.e evolution by natural selection. When studied insights of emotions and it’s expressions, following conclusions were drawn:? 1. Micro Expressions lasts for fraction of a second. They occur when people conceal their feelings. These emotions are not expressive enough in actions that could be displayed for other person to see.? 2. Emotions are auto appraisers, reactions to matter which seems to be very important to our welfare. It’s more of helpless indications towards somethings that makes us happy or sad and smile or tears tag along without trying. 3. Emotions often begin so quickly that we are not aware of the processes in our mind which set them off. Sometime they are so hard to pretend or we are too late to try blocking them, that without our knowledge they become an expression on display. 4. Auto appraisals scan for events which are critical to our welfare and survival. Instant burst of tears at times remind us that we have been staying strong for too long and wasn’t really allowing ourselves to be vulnerable. 5. Our evolutionary heritage makes a major contribution to the shaping of our emotional response. What we learn determines how we react to situations that triggers our emotional intellect. 6. The desire to experience or not to experience emotion motivates much of our behaviour. Trying this as effortless as possible still it shows up in the behaviour. 7. An efficient signal – clear, rapid and universal informs other how the emotional person is feeling. Universal emotional thermometer defines what emotion other person is feeling, it helps people understand emotions of other people. Studies dealing with this complex intellectual, medical and sociological phenomenon is address as psychology. Psychology has another branch of psychoanalysis, which according to researchers is “depth psychology” because of different levels it works in as a comprehensive theory. ??Psychoanalysis helps in understanding emotions better as it’s about memories, thoughts, feelings, phantasies, intentions, wishes, ideals, psychological conflict, beliefs, desires and all those parts of our unconscious or conscious mind for better theory about why we react in the way we do. Psychoanalysis is dynamic psychology more than depth psychology. It’s based on interpretation in literal or figurative sense.??Behaviour is motivated by our desire of experiencing emotions which are further result of much deeper hidden forces. Any particular behaviour may have contributions from all these sources. Dynamic unconscious consisting phantasies, instinctual forces, wishes, internal object relations is major driving force behind our experience of emotions. Furthermore there are some contributors towards our behaviour and they are:? – Organised Mental Behaviour – Repressed Drives – Unconscious Body Image – Infantile Reasons such as parents, repetition, of pattern of relationship, thinking, unconscious, psychic functions, defence mechanism or psychic universals.??These factors are closely working with our dynamic unconscious influencing our brain to distort reality and motivates us to pretend by being the major weight in the notion. Pretend can be defined as trying to be something we are not or to appear like something that’s not actually there. According to Metapsychology it’s something that imbalances our psychic equilibrium. But that’s not the only explanation to why we pretend.?”Think of all the factors involved when two people fall in love. It’s not just ‘blind instinct’, is it?” Outputs of human behaviour like pretending must be accounted for hypotheses about inputs (phantasies, urges, desires) and their origin. Theory of “Many levels of Meaning explains how different theories building up from smallest thoughts, stories, ideas, dreams and strange theories all together embody hypotheses. These elements of the scientific model/ mind palace are termed as psychic contents. Cognitive Architecture of Pretence??The standard architecture of belief, desire and practical reason explains the phenomenon of Pretence. With this standard structure there is also a need to recognise the existence of the ‘attitude of supposing’. There is a need of defining supposing as a different channel altogether; as it can’t be reduced to believing, or to desiring, or to any combination (nor can be reduced to planning or intending). Therefore it needs to be assigned to it’s own ‘box’ within a functioning boxology of human mind. ?It was suggested that two new boxes should be considered in the standard architecture. One is the mechanism of generating suppositions and other one is working memory system where suppositions get elaborated. Nichols and Stich proposed this account of pretence using this diagram to explain boxology of mind. 1.1 Account of motivations that underlie pretend play.?”Pretender wants to behave in a way in which some person or thing represented in their possible worlds box (their box of phantasies) would behave.” Researchers say that such desires are both basic and innate; in much same way that desires for food or sex are both basic and innate.??These seem plausible towards specific motivation question of pretend play but in contrast there isn’t any motivational that is innate but species- specific disposition to mentally rehearse supposed actions. These rehearsals then interact with our motivational systems going rise to new desires in the way that mental rehearsals normally do.??1.2 Supposition generator and the desires box is there to represent the channel of information. “It can be open or closed”; when open each supposition gives rise to a desire but when closed no new desire gets created. Two proposals were proposed further test limitations of this open and close concept:? 1.2.1 Proposal 1: Status of channel is age specific i.e the channel is wide open in childhood and close down as we grow up. To the contradiction it is evident that adults are perfectly capable of pretending and mostly for their own sake.? 1.2.2 Proposal 2 : Status of channel depends on specific behavioural cue i.e trigger is required before some pretend takes place but on the contrary the desire channel is opened by pre existing desire to pretend something.The theories stated above tells us pretty clearly that pretence is a complex combination of fantasy and mental rehearsal of actions. There are a lot of reasons to how desire can lead to pretending and one of the major one being ‘taken for granted’. Desires taken for granted propose the highest inclination towards pretend. ??Pretend in standard form follows this pattern majorly:? – Some suppositions give rise to desires, to behave as one would if those suppositions were true.? – People engage in strange and unexpected forms of play in order to make other people laugh or to gather attention. – Patterning in pretend that can be witnessed depends on the supposition that are interesting to the subject. ??Pretence can be defined as a complex mixture of fantasy and mental rehearsal of actions. Imagination is a major cognitive component that contributes towards pretend. Imagination paired with desire acts as a driving force in order for someone to pretend their own feelings. It also involves fantasy suppositions. Mental rehearsal of actions engage with our motivation systems, giving rise of emotions. For instance: Imaginary sex can make you sexually aroused, imagined dangers can make you feel afraid, people experience range of emotions while reading book.??Propositional form of imagination comes in two varieties i.e Belief like and desire like. When we entertain suppositions, we enter in state that is significantly belief- like. It will guide our reasoning, to some extend our acting in the ways that it influences our belief. It’s not different from belief but suppositions that are involved in pretence aren’t beliefs, they are belief-like; they have an inference-guiding and action-guiding role similar to belief.??In addition to belief like there is another variety of imagination desire- like which is not desire but motivates the subsequent sequence of pretend actions. It can motivate both practical reasoning and action in the same way desire does. Still it’s not like a full blown desire of doing something definitely. Belief like imagination when accompanies with suitably related desire-like imagination leads to pretence in actions and feelings.??When we read something we accept everything that is being told to us with questioning the writer because it’s easy for us to accept alien desires of how we want the book to unfold. It is easy also because our belief like imagination is manipulated and we believe in them just enough. When some likely consequences are predicted, all of the contents are made available as inputs to the Desire generating & emotional generating mechanisms. If our desire-like imagination and belief-like imagination is generating emotions, then they are expected to be emotion-like; but emotions generated by this process are real ones and not just emotion-like.Pretence becomes a majorly acceptable part of our life. Everyone is fine with pretending because doing anything for one’s sake gives emotional satisfaction. Even doing something like pretending something small required emotional generation and desire generation. By shutting down or modulating responses it feels pleasurable.It’s possible to take our emotions in a negative emotional responses in terms of control. The motivation and attraction towards pretend is a combination of aversive emotional reaction with elements of control that comes with the knowledge that nothing of the sort pretended or envisaged is really taking place.People have been pretending for emotional satisfaction which has been made easier with the mental rehearsal before they start to pretend. People still retain the knowledge of what to do but ignoring knowledge/ last failed attempt leads to pretend as a choice. Pretend is majorly picked from environment and admired which makes it easier for brain to work around with.While pretend is widely present in nature and humans have been pretending from a long time now. Psychoanalysis is not a cure but a way of solving riddles. It is not about constructing, it’s about Unpicking something. Mind either seeks relationship with other people or simple pleasure or discharge of physical tension. To maintain psychic equilibrium the self tries to mould the outside world to fits it’s own patterns.Internal objects can be mental representation of people or bits of people. The relationship between internal objects and subsequent relationship with outside world is how one feels about ‘one self’. Mind is constructed from internal objects which leads to “parts” becoming “roles” and “forces” becoming “scripts”. ??Everyone believes in “telling a better story” and there is no proof of how honest the story is. The transition space between internal world and reality becomes a space for creative play and imagination. This further leads to projections of how people externalise the contents. How we may project our mood and other things because of our own misery. We project unwanted truths about ourselves, accusing others for the faults we possess.??People pretend because both mental rehearsal and the performance of pretend actions tends to be emotionally rewarding, reflecting their standing desires, values and interests. ??”I don’t want to be at the mercy if my Emotions. I want to use them, to enjoy them, and to dominate them.” (Oscar Wilde, 1890). People identifying with Pretend doesn’t come easy. While pretend differs in every age but understanding this in young adults and till the time we start becoming independent stepping in our careers is pretty relatable. People ward off the unpleasure that would be caused if they acknowledge pretend. Starting from dodging their defence mechanism towards this never ending process is accompanied with splitting, denial, projection, isolation, undoing, sublimation, reaction formation and identification with aggression.??Being understood has such a powerful emotional effect and resonance. We seek for that kind of emotional satisfaction. We are on that always moving train where we project into other people and keep projections with us as well. Sharing experience, instincts, anxiety and conflicts between them. Compromise formation takes place between reprising forces and repressed ideas are repudiated by the ego. ??But ‘Why do I do that?’ and ‘I have been missing me lately’??The answer is pretty straight one part our mind is accusing while another part of our mind is feeling accused and obliged to make amends for something. Now that you are feeling accused about these feelings lately, you cannot deny that you are missing on yourself. You can pretend all you want but how do you pretend something to yourself? ??’I miss me’, how do I pretend that? Well we don’t have to. We go back to the start, start before pretend, it’s not late to find a way back. It’s time to travel to conscious from unconscious. Thereby lose some of it’s power to distort reality.