CHAPTER (Foster, 2010; Karageorghis et al, 2009; Mohammadzadeh,

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION AND
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

1.0                
INTRODUCTION

Many researches (Cooper et al, 2012; Dominguez et al, 2017; Ganio
et al, Orer, 2014, Waterhouse et al 2010; 2009; William, 2005) were studied the effects of various types of ergogenic aids such
as music, caffeine, creatine, carnitine, amino acids, sodium bicarbonate and
beetroot juice on sport performance. These ergogenic aids served to improve
various sport performance such as aerobic performance, anaerobic performance,
weight loss, muscular power, speed and muscle strength.

Music was very important throughout history to many aspects
of human life, including dancing and hunting and warfare. Music might act to
increase exercise intensity by increasing arousal such as power output and
heart rate, delaying fatigue while increase exercise duration or allowing
entrainment during rhythmic activities which might contribute to improving sport
performance (Foster, 2010; Karageorghis et al, 2009; Mohammadzadeh, 2008;
Priest, 2004).

Based on Waterhouse and Edwards (2010), faster
music, whether because of the intrinsic tempo of the music or having increased
the tempo artificially, enabled exercise to be performed at a greater work rate
and with a greater physiological effect and more positive subjective responses,
than did slower music. These effects were due to some combination of
motivational and distracting effects which reducing the individual’s perception
of work, fatigue and discomfort that were involved (De Bourdeaudhuij et al.,
2002; Crust, 2004b; Edworthy and Waring, 2006;  Nethery et al., 1991; Nethery, 2002; Potteiger
et al., 2000; Szabo et al., 1999; Yamashita et al., 2006).

Researchers had examined the use of slow music,
fast music and no music (Waterhouse et al, 2009); the role of lyrics in the
music (Sanchez et al, 2014); the used of motivational music (Isik et al, 2015);
the used of synchronous music (Saha, 2012) and the used of preferred music and
non-preferred music (Nakamura et al, 2010). There were also researchers who
examined the use of music as ergogenic aid in different conditions such as
listen to music during warm-up (Chtourou et al, 2011), prior to anaerobic
exercise (Sherman and Richmond, 2013) and during circuit- type exercise
(Karageorghis, 2009). The result from previous studies was inconclusive and
conflicting. However various aspects of the use of music during exercise had
been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate effect of music on
heart rate, perceived exertion, core temperature, skin temperature and thermal
comfort scale for cycling performance in heat condition.

According to Galloway et al (1997), the
progressive impairment in endurance performance with the increasing ambient
temperature was well-documented. There had been many explanations about this
deterioration in performance proposed by the researchers, including an
increased physiological burden to heat via the skin and an elevated core
temperature (Cheuvront et al, 2010). Hyperthermia and increased in brain
temperature could reduce central drive to continue exercise. Therefore, the
onset of fatigue will be precipitated (Nybo, 2010).

Therefore, instead of using caffeine (Beaumont
and James, 2017), creatine (Mendel et al, 2004) and other supplements, music
was chosen in this study so that psychological, psychophysical and ergogenic effects
of music could reduce fatigue and prolong the endurance performance in hot
condition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1         STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 

The purpose of this
study was to evaluate the effects of music on endurance performance during cycling
in the hot condition. Besides, this study was to compare the cycling
performance of ‘with music’ group and ‘no music’ group to determine the musical
effects such as psychophysical, psychological and ergogenic effects on
participants’ cycling performance in the hot condition.

When exercise in the hot condition, the enhanced
thermoregulatory demand for skin blood flow coupled with dehydration and
hyperthermia would cause a number of challenge to an individual’s
cardiovascular control and thus, the provision of oxygen to exercising muscles
and this might cause negative effect on endurance performance (Alonso et al,
2008). There was a high risk of getting cardiovascular strain during prolonged
and intense exercise such as in the 2020 Tokyo Olympic events where temperatures
would soar to 38 degrees Celsius (Bloomberg News, 2013).

Numerous researchers (Arngrimsson
et al., 2003; Bassett & Howley, 2000; Cheuvront et al., 2010; Gonzalez-Alonso
(2003); Nybo et al. (2001); Prampero, 2003 and Sawka et al. 1985) had reported
that high environmental temperature significantly decreases VO2max and
impaired aerobic performance. According to Arngrimsson (2004), heat stress
reduced VO2max in men and in women in proportion to the
increased in core temperature and skin temperature. The increased in skin blood
flow would affect cardiovascular function by decreasing the central blood
volume and stroke volume and by impairing muscle blood flow (Gosolfi,
2000).Therefore, the oral-to-skin temperature gradient could be an important
factor that may influence VO2max. But there from the limited data
available, it is unclear whether hot condition reduces Vo2max during endurance
cycling performance.

Other researchers had revealed the positive effects of music
on sport performance.  Karageorghis et
al. (2009, 2010, 2013) had primarily discovered three types of main musical
effects on sport performance in the field of exercise and sport which were
psychological, psychophysical, and ergogenic. Firstly, psychological effects
concerned on how music influenced the mood, emotion, affect, cognition and
behavior. Secondly, psychophysical effects of music were measured during
exercise, and also sometimes during sport training. Thirdly, music had an ergogenic
effect when it improved exercise performance by delaying fatigue and increasing
work capacity.

In addition, numerous researchers (Lim, 2012; Nakamura,
2010; Sanchez, 2013; Waterhouse, 2009) examined the effects of music tempo,
music lyrics, music preference, asynchronous and synchronous music on sport
performance. Karageorghis (2009) found that music could improve endurance
performance. Similarly, Yamamoto et al. (2003) reported that participants
listening to either slow or fast music for 20 minutes before completing the
maximal exercise task, improved their power output in both conditions. The
researchers concluded that the slower music decreased arousal while the faster
music elevated it. On the other hand, Bigliassi (2012) reported that listening
to music before and during exercise did not affect performance and
psychophysiological parameters during the 5km time trial. Similarly, Foster et
al (2013) revealed that music has no effect on either performance or physiology
during 10km cycling at competitive intensity.

The above-mentioned research findings provided inconclusive
and conflicting evidences of the effects music on sport performance especially
endurance performance. Thus, this study was important to examine the effects of
music on endurance performance in hot condition 

However, apparently there was no study yet that examine the
effects of music on endurance performance in hot condition. But a researcher
Waterhouse et al (2009) conducted a study which was to determine the effects of
music tempo upon submaximal cycling performance in hotter climates. The researchers stated
that the relevant finding needed further investigation. Therefore, understood
the further knowledge on the effect of music on physiological and psychological
responses in hot condition was essential towards any sport related performance
needed to find out.

 

 

 

1.2         PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purposes of this study were to:

1.2.1       
Evaluate the effects of music on endurance
performance during cycling in hot condition.

1.2.2       
Compare the cycling performance of
‘with music’ group and ‘no music’ group.

 

 

1.3  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

 

Based
on the statement of problem and the purpose of this study, the study focused on
the hypotheses which were expressed in the null form:

Ho1 There was no
significant difference in physiological parameters between trials.

Ho2 There was no
significant difference in Cycling Performance between trials.

Ho3 There was no
significant difference in psychological parameters between trials.

Ho4 There was no
significant difference in male physiological
parameters in WM and NM Trial.

Ho5 There was no
significant difference in male Cycling
Performance in WM and NM Trial.

Ho6 There was no
significant difference in male psychological
parameters in WM and NM
Trial.

Ho4 There was no
significant difference in female physiological
parameters in WM and NM Trial.

Ho5 There was no
significant difference in female Cycling
Performance in WM and NM
Trial.

Ho6 There was no
significant difference in female psychological
parameters in WM and NM
Trial.

 

1.4 
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

There was a need to increase our
understanding of how music could help to improve on active person’s endurance
performance in hot condition.

The finding of this study could be used
by athlete to delay fatigue in endurance training. In addition, athletes could
understand how to improve their training regimen which with music resulting in
more work being performed in a set amount of time. Coaches and athletes could
use music as ergogenic aids to train in heat acclimation.

The findings also would provide useful
feedback to the physical educator. Physical educator is the key people who was
directly in touch with the grass roots level in schools. Thus, the findings of
the study could be very useful for physical educators to consider music to help
to improve student’s exercise adherence.

 

1.5  DELIMITATIONS

 

      The
following delimitations were placed on this study:

 

1.5.1       
The
subjects were 28 active individuals (male = 14, female= 14).

1.5.2       
Subjects
cycled 55% of Vo2max for 40 minutes which maintained 60RPM in the first 20
minutes and followed by cycle as fast as possible in the last 20 minutes under
two conditions (With Music and No music).

1.5.3       
The
cycling testing protocol was adopted from Dyer (2013).

1.5.4       
According to Karageorghis (2013),
the range of preferred tempi for cycle ergometer was 125-140bpm. Therefore, music
tempo of 150 bpm was chosen for the ‘with music’ group because this study was
conducted in hot condition.

 

1.6  ASSUMPTION

1.6.1       
Subjects
performed The Astrand Maximal Cycle Protocol to the best of their effort.

1.6.2       
Subjects
adhered to the guidelines of the two conditions (With music and No Music)
during the test.

 

1.7  DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.7.1       
With
Music. Operationally, subjects were provided with 150bpm
tempi music during experimental
trials.

1.7.2       
No
Music. Operationally, subjects were not provided with any music during
experimental trials.

1.7.3       
Hot
condition. Operationally, the ambient temperature was maintained at 35?C.

1.7.4       
POMS-A (Profile
of Mood States-Adolescents). Operationally, described feeling that subjects had at that moment. And
it was measured by 24-items mood states that contained in a questionnaire.

1.7.5       
Distance Completion. Operationally, subjects performed cycling for 20
minutes which they were instructed to cycle as fast as possible.