Cloud computing is known as one of the major licenses for manufacturing production. Cloud manufacturing is a new and smart model which is knowledge-based, service-oriented, energy efficient, and high performance. Cloud manufacturing introduced to solve traffic jam and a brand new prospect in information improvement and assembling applications. Some essential points that cloud computing involved in cloud manufacturing are IT, pay-as-you-go business models, production scaling up and down per demand, flexibility in deploying and customizing solutions. In this paper, some of the necessary points of cloud manufacturing briefly discussed and the layers of cloud computing are shown with reacting of clients request service according to their needs from the cloud.
Cloud computing is a practical method that allows a massive amount of data to be stored, and providing access for users or other customers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 1 defined cloud computing as “a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction”. Cloud computing provides several benefits for users such as reduce cost, increase storage, flexibility, and provide availability according to the service level agreement (SLA) between customer and cloud provider. In cloud computing there are models that known as delivery models are divided into three services software as a service (SaaS) acknowledge users to connect and use cloud apps over the internet, platform as a service (PaaS) acknowledge users to build and run applications avoiding the expense and complexity of buying software license, and infrastructure as a service (IaaS) acknowledge user to maintain a strategic distance from the cost and nature of purchasing, dealing with your own physical servers and other data center foundation. Day by day cloud computing is becoming the major concept that all the big companies and organizations refer to. Also businesses are taking advantages of it, for example, inline commerce, biomedical information sharing, and conference origination. There are efficient reasons in manufacturing business in order to borrow the concept of cloud computing and rise it to the concept of “from cloud computing to cloud manufacturing”. This research will summarize the concept of cloud manufacturing in detailed sections.
2. Cloud computing in the context of manufacturing
A combination between developed technologies such as cloud computing, Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, and a new manufacturing model have been developed which is – cloud manufacturing (CMFg). It is used to solve some difficulties in information station development and manufacturing industry. There are few points are introduced as the main methods for cloud manufacturing and cloud manufacturing resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud. The philosophy of DAMA “Design anywhere, Manufacture anywhere” established the approach and concept of manufacturing that defined as the ability to exchange design and manufacturing data through network sites. Commonly cloud computing will have dissimilarity from manufacturing area and this classified into two type , manufacturing with direct adoption of some cloud computing technologies, and the manufacturing version of cloud computing.
2.1 Smart manufacturing with cloud computing
In term of business and development centers, cloud computing becomes top priorities around. Some manufacturing industries take advantages of cloud computing and combine both cloud and manufacturing, with replacing traditional manufacturing to cloud manufacturing. The key areas of adopting cloud in manufacturing are IT resources, pay as you go, flexibility, scaling up and down, and customizing solutions. The cost of adopting cloud in this area can be multiple, for example, some applications and traditional IT of the company can work with cloud-based solutions and get advantages to make changes and produce a smart manufacturing using cloud computing. Setting up and keeping up an incredible IT framework requires many resources, from capable servers and various licenses to intelligent staff to continue everything running easily, and those are not cheap but cloud makes them more reasonable. For supporting business cloud computing offers Business- to – business (B2B) that enable better interspersed and other effective developments between manufacturing and supplier, or between supplier and seller. Cloud computing can be used in many other features of manufacturing business such as, cloud computing can helping the improvement of an application for client onboarding process that is more productive than the customary procedure of organization onboarding clients.
2.2 Cloud Manufacturing
The first thing we can think about when we talk about cloud manufacturing is the existing network called Internet-based manufacturing or distributed manufacturing. What is incomplete in this kind of manufacturing administrations are the combined operation administration of the administrations, the decision of various operation modes and inserted access of manufacturing hardware and effects. In a run of mill transported manufacturing condition, the quality specialist organization and benefit of demander have less management. Along these lines, appropriation of the arranged collecting idea has been moderate and less successful. From productive of manufacturing to the services that provide, cloud manufacturing provides a high and smart solution. Cloud computing is viewed as the evolution and convergence of several independent computing trends such as Internet delivery, ”pay-as-you-go” utility computing, elasticity, virtualization, grid computing, distributed computing, content outsourcing and Web 2.0 2 It is also considered as another multidisciplinary area that combines technologies such as networked manufacturing, manufacturing grid (MGrid), virtual manufacturing, agile manufacturing, Internet of things, and of course cloud computing. In cloud manufacturing area resources are distributed in cloud services and managed, users can use the services according to their requirements and needs; they also request services from stages of product lifecycle such as product design, manufacturing, testing, management and other stages.
2.3 Manufacturing System Framework
Manufacturing system contains four layers, manufacturing resource layer, virtual service layer, global service layer, and application layer. The first layer is resource layer, it is consisting of all required resources through the creation of development life cycle which shows into two different forms manufacturing physical resources and manufacturing capabilities. The services that exist in this area are IaaSs and SaaSs. Manufacturing physical resources can exist in the hardware or software form. The former includes equipment, computers, servers, raw materials, simulation software, analysis tools, ”know-hows”, data, standards, employees, etc.3 Manufacturing capabilities are intangible and dynamic recourses representing the capability of an organization undertaking a particular task with competence. These may include product design capability, simulation capability, experimentation, production capability, management capability, and maintenance capability 3. The second layer is virtual service layer, the key functions of this layer are first, to identify manufacturing resources, then virtualized them, and finally package them as cloud manufacturing services. The number of technologies can be used to identify manufacturing resources such as computational RFID, wireless sensor networks (WSN), Internet of things, Cyber-Physical Systems, GPS, sensor data classification, clustering and analysis, and adapter technologies 3. Comparing it with traditional cloud computing environment is more difficult to understand these capacities for a cloud manufacturing application. The concept of manufacturing resource virtualization is to take out the logic of resources from their physical resources base and the resources are virtualized in different ways, estimating resources and manufacturing knowledge can be virtualized the same as Cloud computing resources. Hardware manufacturing is used to become virtual machines example, Virtual Machine Monitor and Virtual Machine Manager (VMM)) are responsible for Communication with the lower level tools, planning and assigning virtual machines. An agent can be an effective tool for virtualization, for example, MTConnect; it is a standard based on an open protocol for data integration used for the plug-and-play environment for manufacturing facilities 3. For example three different machines for a factory virtualized and they are connected to three different MTConnect inside the cloud, next those manufacturing resources from those machines must be changed to cloud resources to do that resource description protocols and service description languages will be used, each resource will have an extension similar to URL that describes the name and data identification of the system which will be used as a link for a program, data file and etc. The third layer is global service layer; this layer appears on cloud deployment technologies such as PaaS. Internet of things made the connection easier between physical devices, according to user’s requirements and the provided cloud resources, complete service mode and partial service mode are two types of cloud manufacturing operation modes at the global service layer. Complete service mode responsible for the entire cloud from services, operations, network, applications, human resources, and manufacturing capabilities. Partial service mode responsible for partial services inside the cloud, for example, machine tools and exterminate devices is types of cloud services. In Total this layer is responsible for fee calculating, observing manufacturing resources, managing QoS and locating them. The fourth and final layer is application layer it is the interaction between user and cloud manufacturing resources as the user domain. A user can generate and define manufacturing applications through this layer, and the user should constraint on the cost of those applications. An important point of this layer is data manageability, to manage and secure all the sensitive data in cloud manufacturing.
2.4 Encapsulating manufacturing resources with mapping
Virtualizing manufacturing resources can be observed as encapsulation processes, by using three different mapping methods. First, one-to-one mapping the simplest method applied to those manufacturing resources that are providing a single function. Second, many-to-one mapping method applies to those manufacturing resources that are providing multiple functions; the single functions are combined into multiple functions. With multiple manufacturing resources inside the cloud are combined more resource services can be provided. Last, the one-to-many mapping is the method of one single resource show as multiple resources for a user, which in fact users think they virtualize the resources only for them self and in point of fact they virtualized and shared with other users.
2.5 Service-oriented manufacturing environment
The applications inside cloud manufacturing environment and all other resources and services can be organized as a service-oriented method; this can be achieved by proposing module based platform for Computer Aided Design, Computer Aided Manufacturing, and Computer Numerical Control (CAD-CAM-CNC) arrangement. The main goal is to battle the issues of programming identity besides the (CAD-CAM-NC) series and the method called open Computer Based Manufacturing (open CBM). It is designed and organized through service-oriented architecture given those necessary tools to organize the information and connect the model. It will be considered such as platform as service idea which applications are a set of services that are roughly connected to each other
2.6 SaaS for engineering simulations
To run and configure the simulation results in a framework used to build the modular simulation software. In the framework user in application layer allowed to select a simulation and assign the player to it that called “Component”. Those components are software as a service SaaS, they are modulated, self-contained, portable also pluggable. After the simulation, the production post processed complete components, with such framework software modules, are recognized, loaded, and used at runtime.
2.7 Some embryonic cloud manufacturing systems
Recently few cloud manufacturing systems represented the beginning of new system to cloud. The reasoning and supporting ideas of those systems are meeting toward cloud manufacturing. Bellows descriptions are summarized systems of cloud manufacturing that afford some necessary technology support. The first system, by Nessehi et al that describes data warehouse for storing manufacturing resources inside the cloud and represent the knowledge. Second, Mokhtar and Houshmand describe manufacturing platform given some understanding of how a plan and assembling resources might be represented and how Global Service Layer might be created for cloud manufacturing. Third, UbiDM is the model of manufacturing and design the resources through computing technologies; the key point is that the whole cloud life cycle information will be found. Next, Wang and Xu provided Distributed Interoperable Manufacturing Platform (DIMP) as an integrative condition between current and upcoming applications. Last, STEP and STEP-NC defined as the main data schema this model can be connected to software applications and the aim of it is to add the software applications based on what the user request and need. The system framework consists of two domains user domain which is an application layer and platform domain in resource layer, also consist of interface agent, broker agent and supervision agent this agent is the decision maker. The interface gives privilege for the user to choose from the list of applications then transform the results into services, and then the broker agent will look and find the best cloud manufacturing resources.
Nowadays cloud computing have become the most important and valuable trend that all the big companies and organizations used to keep their business more successful and secure. Today cloud computing is adapted more and this brings us cloud manufacturing that is used in most of the businesses. Cloud computing plays a big role in the manufacturing industry, helping it to change entry development, business methodology, and making smart organizes that support convincing the combined work. The key points of adopting cloud Manufacturing is a new business, IT, pay as you go, flexibility, production, scaling up and down. In this research the general concept of cloud manufacturing is summarized in order to get the most useful information, also the layers of cloud manufacturing framework is discussed as manufacturing resource layer, virtual service layer, and application layer. From the production of cloud manufacturing to the service-oriented manufacturing provide a valuable solution by keeping all the resources secure and achieved in a centralized way, that user can use cloud service according to their needs. Cloud manufacturing means another method for assembling business that is everything is seen as an administration, the administration you ask for or an administration you give.