`SECTION A.. 2
group can be defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals
who come together to achieve particular objectives. In other words a group is a
collection of people who interact with each other. An organization itself is a
group, where a number of people (Managers, Labors, Executives and Staff,
etc…) come together and perform their task in achieving a common goal
(Organizations mission). (Organizational Behavior-Groups,
The committee members consists of more than
two people coming together to achieve a common goal, designing a new product
line for the burial for the beloved pets. And when the purpose of the joint
venture will be over the personnel in the group will go to their individual
task or they will go to the adjourning process.
In the joint venture we can
also see that José acts as the initiator proposing the idea of the board of
directors. Which is a role of a person in a task oriented group? He also plays
the role of a harmonizer, trying to resolve any conflict that may arise by
agreeing to k to the board of directors to use the old product.
Task to be executed are well understood and accepted within the
group and members listen well and actively participate in given assignments.
Which is also a characteristic of group which is followed in the group another
characteristic of groups are being able to suggest and express ideas openly,
which is carried out in the meeting held by the members. They expressed their
opinion on whether it was good idea to design a new product rather than using
the old one.
Another characteristic of a group is and disagreement being the
center regarding ideas or method. In the meeting there was a huge debate on
whether they must follow the instructions of the board of directors or if it
was wiser to use the old product to be on the safe side.
groups are the type of working group created by the organization and have a
designated work assignment and rooted task. The behavior of such groups is
directed towards achieving an organizational goal.
Organizational Function of formal groups includes:
Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of
new or creative ideas and solutions.
Provide a problem-solving mechanism for
complex problems requiring varied information and assessments.
and train newcomers. (Miss, 2017)
Organizational Function of formal groups includes:
the individual’s need for affiliation.
Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s
self-esteem and sense of identity.
Give individuals an opportunity to test and
share their perceptions of social reality.
the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerless-ness.
a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.
The functions of
formal group help in accomplishing the organization mission. By performing the
individual function and organizational function the group is more likely to
of Group Development
Bruce Tuck man was the person who introduced the five stages of
Stages of Group Development
This is the first stage, where the members are unclear of their
individual task. And they will also be able to get to know each other. The
leader plays a major role in deciding the roles and responsibilities of the
individual members. (Organizational Behavior-Groups,
Stage 2 – STORMING
After getting to know each other in the forming stage problems may
arise due to the diversity of each individual member and their working style or
due to struggle for power. This is the
stage where many teams often fail. (Organizational Behavior-Groups,
Stage 3 – NORMING
This is the third stage of the group development process, where the
members resolve the problems and ignore the colleague’s differences and respect
the leader or authority. And also give a constructive feedback and build a
better team. But the group may again fall back to the storming stage with
upcoming new task or projects. (Organizational Behavior-Groups,
Stage 4 – PERFORMING
This is the stage where the team members are at their best,
performing everyone’s individual roles and responsibilities without friction in
the aim of succeeding in accomplishing him organizational goal. (Organizational Behavior-Groups, (n.d.))
Stage 5 – Adjourning
Many teams will reach this stage eventually, where the members of
the group will leave because the purpose of the group is no more, either due to
completing the purpose of the group, not getting past the storming stage. (Organizational Behavior-Groups, (n.d.))
The organizations must follow these stages and overcome the
problems which arise during the process in order to reach the Adjourning stage.
can be defined as, permanent change in behavior due to direct and indirect
experience. Any type of permanent change in our behavior or attitude because of
an experience we had. Like during our education in schools, or trainings in
colleges or even events and workshops carried out. Every day we are learning
something new, because of the situations we have been through.
ii.The diversity within the group helped them to use each ones
individual thinking and skills in the most effective way. All high end people
were taken to assist in the project in order to bring a better product. They
would be able to give advice related to the field they were expertise of. The
marketing director and assistant director of finance from Japanese will be able
to help in the marketing and finance department. Purchasing manager from
Chicago will be beneficial in the purchase department. They will be able to discuss
about the problems that may arise, or what would be the best way to carry out
the process. And likewise, the committee used every individual’s ability
effectively to maximize the outcome. They will also be able to give new ideas
and information for the product. But at the end in making the final decision,
despise the diversity majority of the team agreed on one thing. Even thought
they were from different places, and had different thinking, everybody was able
to talk and put forward their ideas and opinion without allowing many conflict
is a permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. These experiences
may be derived from inside the body or they may be sensory, arising outside. The
key points are that it is a change, and that it is relatively permanent and is
acquired though experience. When we look at the process of learning, there are
four stages. That is, Perceiving, Deciding, Acting and Feedback.
Perceiving is the first stage of learning. Where the learner perceives or
develops an idea of what has to be done. It is often the stage where the
learner observes the situation. For example, when a baby is crying. We as a
learner understand what has to be done. We must calm the baby. Then comes the
second stage that is deciding. After understanding what must be done the
learner will then decide what he would do in that situation. The information
will be processing in the brain, like thinking of possible ways to calm the
baby. And he will decide how he would put the information into response. The
process of applying the information into a response is the third stage, acting.
Which is acting upon the decision, like carrying the baby or making faces
to calm the baby. Then the last stage of the learning process will occur, which
is Feedback. In this stage the learner will be able to get the feedback
of the situation. Understanding what he would do in a similar situation next
time. Or what he decided was the best decision. And then the cycle repeats.
Figure 2 the Learning Process
Iv. Learning can be understood clearly with the help of some
theories that will explain our behavior.
Theories of learning include:
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY
The classical conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus is
coupled with an unconditioned stimulus. Commonly, the conditioned stimulus (CS)
is an impartial stimulus Classical conditioning is the link of one event with
another desired event resulting in a behavior. Like the experiment on dogs
salivation and ringing bell. In this experiment, a meat slice was presented to
a dog, every time the meat was brought to the dog, a bell was also ranged.
After a repeating the process for a period of time, when the bell was ranged
even before the meat was presented, the dog started to salivate. Thus, the bell
became a conditioned stimulus, resulting in conditioned or learned response.
OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY
Operant conditioning theory is also known as instrumental
conditioning. This theory is a learning process in which behavior is sensitive
to, or controlled by its outcomes. To get a reward or avoid a punishment.
Behavior is likely to be repeated if the consequences are favorable and vice
versa. For example of a child again. A child may learn to open a box to get the
candy inside, where he is getting a candy, as a reward of his actions (opening the
box). Or learn to avoid touching a hot stove. In this case he is escaping from
a bad outcome it may lead to like burning his hand. (Theories
For instance in an organization, working hard and getting the
promotion will probably cause the person to keep working hard in the future. Or
if a manger assures an employee that he/she will get overtime allowance if
perfumed and at the day of evaluation if the assurance is not fulfilled, the
employee is most likely not to do overtime.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Social learning theory can be said as learning through observation
or experience. It may come from observing a behavior, or observing the outcome
of a behavior. It includes, observation, collecting information from the observation
and making decisions based on the information extracted from the observation.
For example while learning how to play a sport for the first time. We look, see
and observe how other players play and learn from them. (Theories
COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY
Cognition is a person’s ideas, thoughts, knowledge, or
interpretation. Basically, it’s understanding about himself and environment. It
is the behaviors that are based on a person’s knowledge and understanding. Like
thinking on a problem or situation based upon known facts and responding in an
objective and more oriented manner. For example, a person working in a hotel as
a receptionist using the techniques he/she learned in a customer service
training program. Cognitive theory of learning assumes that the organism learns
the meaning of various objects and events and learned responses depend upon the
meaning assigned to stimuli. (Theories of learning).
are evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects people or events. The
three components of attitudes are Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral.
Cognitive is the opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective is the
emotion or feeling segment of an attitude. And the behavioral component is an
intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something.
was in José’s position I would stick to the objective of the committee which
was to come up with a new design, by reducing the unwanted talks and
distractions. And rather than always listening to them, be in charge and make
them understand why the new design is needed and why we cannot use the old one.
As the market is changing and the demand for the product is also changing, so
it was clear that a new design was to be made which was easily manufactured at
a low cost so that they can bring an impact on the market. And make them
understand that the old design did not match the standards and wee it was
rejected. And about the current
situation, because the damage was done I will send the memo, but the directors
words come another committee meeting will be conducted explaining the current
situation and telling hat must be done now.
is defined as the ability to influence others to achieve a desired goal. Most important characteristic of leadership
is being able to influence others to achieve a certain task. In the case Jose
was not able to persuade the other team member to come up with a new design.
More over his words did not have that power in making the final decision. One
of the characteristic that he did have of a leader was consideration. He
listened to others opinions and cared about what they had to say. But then
again he was not able to solve the problem. A good leader must be able to avoid
conflicts and solve problems. And also be able to handle the diversity of the
team. Even though he was the head of the committee he was not able to control
the people. At the end of the day the purpose of the committee was not
obtained. This was because he lacked a very important characteristic of being a
leader which is communication. A leader must be an effective communicator then
only can h be able to persuade and influence others. So in order for Jose to be
a good leader, he must learn to communicate effectively to influence others and
persuade people to do the work without force. Then only can he explain the
purpose of the committee, and why they have to make a new design. And also why
the old design was rejected.
in personality is the behaviors we have which are influenced by the nature. For
example heredity which explain 50% of our behavior like twins having similar
behavior. Whereas nurture of personality refers to the behaviors we have as a
result of Nurture, like socialization, life experience and learning. So we are
defined by the personalities we get from the nature and nurture was our
personality is not stable as birth. It stabilizes through adolescence
refers to the psychological state that moves us to engage on an organized set
of behaviors that maximizes the fulfillment of that motive. Motivation is the
process which begins with a physiological or psychological need or deficiency
which triggers behavior or a drive which is aimed at a goal or incentive.
Motivation may rise and fade overtime but at the same time it’s very persistent
and efficient. It is associated with a network of cognitions like images,
belief or plans. To understand this process further, theories of motivation was
introduced. Three of which are Maslow hierarchy of need model and Herzberg’s
Theory and Theory X and Theory Y. (Robbins, 2013)
HIERARCHY OF NEED MODEL
The best-known theory of motivation
is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow hypothesized that within every
human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs: (Robbins,
Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs.
Security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
Affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
Internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and
external factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
5. Self-actualization. Drive to become what we are capable of
becoming; includes growth, achieving our potential, and self-fulfillment.
Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders.
Physiological and safety needs, where the theory says people start, were lower-order
needs, and social, esteem, and self-actualization were higher-order needs.
Higher-order needs are satisfied internally (within the person), whereas
lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied externally (by things such as
pay, union contracts, and tenure). (Robbins, 2013)
Figure 3 Melow’s
Hierarchy of needs Model
of Satisfiers and Dissatisfies
Believing an individual’s relationship to work is basic, and that
attitude toward work can determine success or failure, psychologist Frederick
Herzberg wondered, “What do people want from their jobs?” He asked people to
describe, in detail, situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad
about their jobs. The responses differed significantly and led Hertzberg to his
two-factor theory —also called motivation-hygiene theory. (Robbins,
As shown in the figure 4.1, intrinsic factors
such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement seem related
to job satisfaction. Whereas figure 4.2 shows that factors like policy and
supervision lead to job dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the factors
that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to
job dissatisfaction. Meaning, Herzberg proposed a dual continuum: The opposite
of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction,” and the opposite of “dissatisfaction”
is “no dissatisfaction. (Robbins, 2013)
X AND THEORY Y
Douglas McGregor proposed two
distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labeled Theory X, and
the other basically positive, labeled Theory Y. After studying managers’
dealings with employees, McGregor concluded that their views of the nature of
human beings are based on certain assumptions that mold their behavior. Under
Theory X, managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore
be directed or even coerced into performing it. Under Theory Y, in contrast,
managers assume employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play,
and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek,
responsibility. (Robbins, 2013)
So in conclusion motivation is a large process
and in order to understand it we must learn the theories of motivation. Each
theory sates different facts about the topic. Other the Melows, Hertzberg’s and
X and Y theory, there are many more other theories, like goal theories.
Barack Obama has always been a
leader in a true sense. Even before becoming the 44th US President and holding
2 terms at the office, Obama was a prolific politician and was revered by the
American public especially from his home state of Illinois and city of Chicago
from where he was elected as Senator as well. It was getting involved and
helping the community that made him a public figure and later on a politician
known all across the US. Barack Obama boosts of qualities and habits of
effective leaders that made him a statesman and a leader of the highest repute
across the globe. An even country not
having friendly relations with the USA admire Mr. Obama much which is a great
quality of a leader as the definition of a leader is defines as a person who is
able to influence others. For example,
when he took a stand on many issues, like most recently on a UN resolution on
Israel-Palestinian conflict, everyone believed that he has a valid point and he
is not taking the American people and the world community for granted. He
talked with logic and knew his job well in influencing people and other leaders
so that his point of view was understandable. (Kowitt, 2017)
Obama is said to be one of the
greatest Democratic leader. Other than that he was also a Transformational
Leader, where he just didn’t use the
word change for his campaign. Across his 8 years tenure as the president, he
tried to achieve so much by applying a change in every aspect of running the
country and what he was doing for the people in general. His critics may have a
valid point that he didn’t deliver on all his promises but he I guess most of
you will agree that he did what was in his power as the house and the senate
was in Republican control during the later stages of his second term. And The
act of using we is not just pure politics as some of you might comprehend but
rather a unique way of making people involved in a conversation and then making
them believe they have actually contributed something positive to a cause,
showing consideration to others which is a characteristic of great leader. He
also urged people around him and the general public about taking risks,
although calculated ones in the start. (Husain, 2017)
The most important aspect of
attracting an audience is by the art of communication. A person cannot become a
leader until and unless he is a great communicator. And it isn’t limited to
just being a great speaker. The listening, writing, and reading skills are also
important as only a great listener can become a great speaker. Mr. Obama is a
leader par excellence as he knows how to talk to any person, group or audience
regardless of their background, age, race, gender, etc. And that’s where he
truly deserves all the praise for being an immaculate person having perfected
the art of communication. (Kowitt, 2017)
In Obamas presidency we can also see
a glimpse of Strategic Leadership Style.
A leader is a person who is never satisfied with even his own work, and
always looks to achieve more. His leadership skills are very effective in
turning endings to a new beginning. He
uses the positive public reaction and sentiment to begin a fresh project so
that the buoyant mode keeps the momentum going and help in completing the new
task with ease. (Husain, 2017)
The traits mentioned about Barak
Obama are just a brief look at how leaders can turn around the fortune of a
nation for the better and lead them. So Obamas skills like Conviction and
Perseverance, being able to bring change, his attitude of “We” not “I” and many
other, defines him as a great Autocratic leader. Despite that he also possesses
much other leadership styles that make him an effective leader like, Visionary
Leadership, Charismatic Leadership, Coaching Leadership and many others. (Kowitt, 2017) (Husain, 2017)
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Husain, H. (2017, janauary 23). 6 Inspiring
Leadership Traits of Barack Obama. Retrieved from blog.taskque.com
Kowitt, B. (2017, may 10). Barack Obama Shares
His Lessons Learned on Leadership and Power. Retrieved from fortune.com
Miss, S. (2017). Class Notes. Male’: Cyryx
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