Demographic visiting Singapore or not). One study examined


Studies have found that demographic differences, such as
age, marital status, gender, education levels, income level, number of children
and ethnicity have an effect on how a person perceives a destination (Baloglu,
1997; De La Viña & Ford, 2001; Huang & Tsai, 2003; Hui & Wan,
2003). However, there were differences in how each category affected the images
of the multiple destinations. Therefore it cannot be concluded how the
demographic differences will affect the images of the destinations for this
study, it can be assumed that these differences do impact if a destination is
seen positively or negatively


The geographical location of where a tourist lives compared
to the destination they are considering visiting plays a role in tourist
perception. In a study of Mexico as a vacation spot, geographical location was
found to be a strong variable that influences perception of a destination
(Crompton, 1979). Participants of the study that lived farther away from the
destination had a more favorable image of the area than those that lived closer
(Hugo, 2014, p. 18).


Type of Tourist

The decision making process can be difficult to
analyze because there are multiple reasons why a person chooses to travel and
what they are hoping to gain from the experience. Some people are seeking to
relax, bond with friends and family, or participate in a recreational activity
that is not available to them at home. Others are looking for stimulation and
seek adventurous activities and environment. These travel goals show that some
travelers are motivated by risk and stimulation, while others prefer the
familiar and comfortable to reach optimal arousal (Iso-Ahola, 1983). The way a
tourist views a destination can either excite them to visit or deter them from
a location. It is important to understand the degree of novelty that a tourist
is seeking in order to determine how this will affect their perception of the country
(for example, whether they’re first time visiting Singapore or not). One study
examined how different types of tourists experience the same destination in
different ways (Wickens, 2002). Similarly a study examined destination loyalty
based on the degree of novelty or familiarity that a tourist desired (Toyama
& Yamada, 2012). However, none have examined tourist typology within the
context of acquiring knowledge for destination selection, especially when there
is a possibility of misperception of the area due to exaggerated or outdated