Dengue fill up knowledge gaps could results in

Dengue
is the most important vector borne viral infection worldwide with estimated 2.5
billion people at risk, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 1.
The number of cases and number of countries affected has doubled from the
period 1990-1994 to 2000-2004 2&3. However, the recent report estimated a
three times increased disease burden of dengue than the earlier report of WHO i.e., 390 million infections occurs per
year. India alone estimated to contribute 33 million dengue cases of the total
estimate of the global dengue disease burden per year 4. Larger epidemics are
becoming more common 4, with countries in Asia witnessing an increase in
severe dengue and a higher mortality in the earlier stages of the infection
5. Dengue, though it has been known as an important public health problem in
India, the recent escalating trend of its unexpected emergence/spread in Indian
subcontinent stresses for adequate preparedness to prevent and control its
further spread. Moreover, the non-availability of a commercial vaccine and
specific treatment strategies may further worsen the situation and warrants
immediate reviewing of the existing surveillance mechanisms. Critical assessing
helps to identify and evolve strategies to fill up knowledge gaps could results
in effectively prevent impending outbreak. WHO World Health Assembly urged
member states to improve surveillance, prevention, control and management of
Dengue 6&7.

 

The
alarming increasing trend of dengue cases and deaths due to dengue from 2007-
2012 in India has been shown in figure.1. The un-usual
emergence of certain dengue virus strains with epidemic potential such as
dengue virus-4 (Serotype I) Dash et al
2011) and dengue virus-3 (Serotype III) Kumar et al 2010) in India indicate the necessity of continuous
monitoring of the viruses. The circulation of multiple serotype with increased
genetic diversity among each serotype has been shown to be resulted in altering
transmissibility, virulence and antigenicity (Zhang et al 2012). In addition, the existence of dengue virus variant or
virulent genotype has also been proved to be co-related with disease severity
(Chakravarti et al 2012) despite the
data on the existence of dengue virus co- circulation and dengue virus
quasispecies (Takeshi Kurosu, 2011) in vector is not available which is very
vital and have epidemiological significance.

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Surveillance
is considered as the important component of dengue prevention and control
programmes. The effective surveillance system enable  to assesses the risk and results in
monitoring epidemic response and evaluation of the ongoing programme. Though
routine surveillance includes the rapid detection of human infection and vector
surveillance along with the ecological and sociological risk factors, viral
surveillance will give us information about the 
invasion of a new or re-introduction of a long time absent serotype in
the area. Early detection of dengue virus in essentially required as a delay in
vector control activities caused by prolonged laboratory confirmation may
contribute dramatically to increased dengue incidence and geographic viral
spread WHO;
2012. 

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