Diseases of inactivity (hypokinetic) are the main cause of death in the
UK and many developed nations (World Health Organisation, 2003). Current
guidelines suggest that:
-Significant health benefits can be gained by including 30 minutes of
moderate activity on most, if not all, days of the week (Department of Health,
-Additional health benefits can be gained through regular participation
in activity that is of longer duration or of more vigorous intensity (U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, 1996).
Mr E has had no previous
injuries since his childhood up-to now. This is a good thing and can mean that
his musculoskeletal system is strong. Mr E also attends the gym 2 times a week,
and one of the session includes weight training. This shows that he enjoys
lifting heavier than recommended weight he is comfortable with, as-well as
making his muscles stronger. Due to a heart condition, I will not be doing any
Isometric exercises, which is why I have modifications to the circuit plan.
However, I have done some strength training as this is improves CV. The main
source of exercise is Isotonic exercises.
For the circuit training, I
have not included activities with equipment’s of use such as dumbbells or bars
to grip. This is because of the arthritis on his hands which can cause a lot of
stress on his body and alert pain. Stress is a cause of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
(IBS) which is what some of his medication are for helping to treat.
I have also included and
would recommend a yoga/stress free session as a post-exercise to assist and
clear away some stress related issues he may have. This could be any chemical
related stress due to the medication he is currently taking, and physical
stress. Unlike cardiovascular exercise, intensity in resistance training does
not correlate with heart rate.
Due to Mr E having 2 hearing
aids, I have decided to use RPE as a measurement structure to know how hard he
feels he is working during the circuit. This is a great method of assessment to
use as it allows me to breakdown the barrier of not being able to hear me
properly and gives me a precise measurement at the time I ask.
In contrast to the methods described previously, RPE (also known as the
Borg scale, after its creator – Gunnar Borg, 1998) is a subjective rating of
how hard the exerciser feels they are working. Typically, two scales have been
used; either the 6 – 20 scale (6 = no exertion at all, 20 = maximal exertion)
or a simplified 1 – 10 scale. Either way, research has indicated that when used
correctly the scale provides an accurate measure of exercise intensity and
seems to correlate well with other physiological measures of performance
(Weltman, 1995; Wilmore and Costill, 2004). It is also easy to administer and
disembarks a disability someone could possibly have.
I am also able to see how hard he is working by;
-listening to his breathing
and see if it changes or gets
-Change of skin colour
(correct or incorrect method)
This gym based circuit
exercise I have created for Mr E meets the recommended guidelines to exercise
for a person of his age. Additionally, I have also taken into consideration
that for the triple coronary bypass that for the bypass to take place, an
artery was taken from his leg. The exercises within my circuit programme can be
performed at home and within the gym and is an individual circuit plan that can
only be performed towards Mr Es’ specific rehabilitation programme.
Blood pressure is an expression of the arterial blood flow and the
peripheral resistance the blood encounters as it flows round the body. Hypertension
is the clinical term used to describe a high blood pressure (BP) of 140/90mmHg
or higher (National Institutes of Health (NIH, 1997). Worldwide, high blood
pressure affects 1 billion people (NIH, 2003) and is estimated to be implicated
in over 7.1 million deaths; 13% of the total annual deaths (WHO, 2002).
Short term effects
There is a linear increase in SBP with increasing levels of exertion
(Franklin, 1998). In contrast, during exertion DBP may decrease slightly, due
to vasodilation, or will remain unchanged (Franklin, 1998), except in
hypertensives where it may rise because of an impaired vasodilatory response
Heavy weight training and isometric exercise will significantly increase
both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Long term effects
Aerobic exercise using large muscle groups in rhythmical activity is
very appropriate to reducing blood pressure over time. Durstine and Moore
(2003), state that endurance training can elicit an average decrease of 10 mmHg
in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in mild and moderate
Except for circuit weight training, chronic strength or resistance training
has not consistently been shown to lower resting blood pressure (Durstine and
Moore, 2003). While resistance training can have many benefits for such groups,
it is not recommended on its own as a means of decreasing blood pressure.