EFFECT fat, 0.9% fiber and 3.7 % ash

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON THE
GROWTH AND YIELD OF GREEN GRAM

Introduction:                                                                                                                                    

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Green
gram (Vigna radiata) also known as moong
bean is one of the most important pulse crops in India which is cultivated
since ancient times. Green gram is native to the Indian sub-continent and
central Asia and is grown in these regions over a long decade. It is also
widely cultivated throughout Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh,
sri-lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, South China
andFormosa.

Green
grams are nutritious source of food with 24.7% protein, 0.6% fat, 0.9% fiber
and 3.7 % ash as well as sufficient of calcium, phosphorous and important
vitamins ( Potterand Hotchkiss , 1997).
It can be also grown for the purpose of green manure, hay and cover crops. It
is a bushy plant that can grow up to a height of 30-120 cm and the colour is
usually green but sometimes it can be found in sheds of black and yellow. The
pods are linear sometimes curved, round slender and hairy.

Moong
bean is consumed in the form of split pulse as well as whole pulse which is an
essential supplement of cereal based diet. The biological value improves
greatly when wheat or rice is combined with green gram because of the
complementary relationship of the essential amino acid. It is particularly rich
in Leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, valine, isoleucine etc.  In addition it is also being important source
of human food and animal feed. Green gram is not only significant to human food
and animal feed, but also plays an important role in sustaining soil fertility
by improving the soil physical properties and fixing atmospheric nitrogen. It
is a drought resistant crop and suitable for dry land farming and predominantly
used as an intercrop with additional crops. However, the productivity of these
crops is very low because of their cultivation on marginal and sub marginal
land of low soil fertility where little attention is paid to adequate
fertilization (Saravanan et al., 2013).

India
is the world’s largest produce as well as consumer of green gram. It produces
about 1.5-2.0 million tons of mung annually from about 3-4 million hectare of
area in which it produce an average productivity of about500kg per hectare.
Green gram output accounts for about 10-12% of total pulse production in the
country. Production of green gram in the country is laxdxdrgely concentrated in
the state of Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Bihar.
Together it contributes about 70% of the total mung production in the country (GOI.Department of agriculture and
cooperation. 2014-2015)

In
India soil health is one of the most important factors for the production of
crop. Farmer use excessive amount of inorganic fertilizer to plant in order to
achieveda higher yield and high economic return. The most applied fertilizer
are leach down below the root zone, thus farmer are used to applied large
amount of synthetic fertilizer, which caused high pollution level to the ground
water, causing soil damages and finally lead to decreasing crop sustainability,
continues use of chemical fertilizer have had unbalance of soil nutrient and at
long last led to consequences a major constraint of productivity, stability and
sustainability of soil production. Also, Yadav and Meena in 2009 found that
application of inorganic fertilizer alone over a long period of time causes
micronutrient deficiencies. The effect 
of using organic and inorganic fertilizer on green gram plant, its
productivity and soil fertility is to promote the application of organic
fertilizer and decreased the used of inorganic fertilizer in order to face the
deterioration in the soil and to preserved the natural resource .

An
important feature of the mung-bean crop is its ability to establish a symbiotic
partnership with specific bacteria, setting up the biological N 2-fixation in
root nodules that supply the plant’s needs for N 2 (Mahmood and Athar, 2008;
Mandal et al ., 2009). Mungbean being
drought tolerant and short duration can grow well under varied conditions
(irrigated and rainfed).  Mungbean has
the potential of producing higher seed yield 
from 1295 to 2961 kg ha -1 depending on the genotypes studied (Ullaht
al., 2011; Bilal, 1994). Phosphorus is one of the important plant
macronutrients, making up about 0.2% of a plant’s dry weight.  It is an important component of key molecules
such as nucleic acids, phospholipids and ATP, and consequently, plants cannot
grow without a reliable supply of this nutrient.  P is also involved in controlling key enzyme
reactions and in the regulation of metabolic pathways (Theodorou and Plaxton,
1993).  Phosphorus is present in seed and
fruit in large quantities and is essential for the seed formation.  It is known to stimulate root growth and is
associated with early maturity of crops. 
It not only improves the quality of fruits, forages, vegetables and
grains but also play role in disease resistance of plants.  (Brady and Weil, 1999). Potassium (K) is the
third macronutrient required for plant growth, after nitrogen (N) and
phosphorus (P). Unlike N and P; K is not a component of cell structure.
Instead, it exists in mobile ionic form, and acts primarily as a catalyst
(Wallingford, 1980). Potassium has an important osmotic role in plants (Tisdale
and Beaton,1985) important function in arid environments for plants
metabolism.  Recently, the use of organic
materials as fertilizers for crop production has received attention for
sustainable crop productivity (Tejada et al ., 2009). Organic materials hold
great promise as a source of multiple nutrients and ability to improve soil
characteristics (Moller, 2009). Organic farming preserves the ecosystem.
Symbiotic life forms are cultured ensuring weed and pest control and optimum
soil biological activity which maintain soil fertility. The synthetic
fertilizers are harmful for soil and aerial environment a threat to entire
globe, because the inorganic fertilizers mainly contain major nutrients NPK in
large quantities and are neglecting the use of organic manures and
bio-fertilizers and hence have paved the way for deterioration of soil health
and in turn ill-effects on plants, human being and livestock (Choudhry,
2005).  Legumes are highly responded to
phosphatic fertilizer but high cost and timely availability of this fertilizer
is problem.  Balance use of fertilizer is
important to obtain maximum seed yield. Therefore, the present study was
undertaken to estimate the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on
growth and yield of mungbean under arid climate. 

 

Objective:

i)
To study the effect of varying levels of inorganic fertilizers on growth yield
and quality of   green gram.

ii)
To study the effect of varying levels of organic fertilizers on growth yield
and quality of   different cultivars of
green gram.

iii)To
workout economics of different treatment

 

2. Review of literature

2.1
Green gram description

Green
gram (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the major pulses grown in India (Punjab) for
its multipurpose uses such as vegetable, pulses, fodder and green manure crop. It
plays an important role in supporting soil fertility by improving soil
properties and fixing atmospheric nitrogen thus contribute to increased yield
of the crops. Green gram is grown usually as rainfed crop and being photo-
sensitive and short duration crop, can be grown during summer season (Tyagi et al., 2014).( Sekhon et al ., 2004) observed that mung bean
is a hardy pulse crop which required hot and dry weather conditions and cloudy
and continuo’s, heavy rain adversely affect the flowering and podding resulting
in poor yield.

2.2 Agronomic practices

For
proper germination and establishment of the crop is ought to be grown on a well
prepared seed bed on a well drained loamy sand to sand loamy soil. (Sekhon et al. 2004). The seed are
recommended to inoculate with rhizobium to increase grain yield by 12- 16 per
cent. (Kular, 2014). Kular in 2014 recommended that for cultivating of green
gram in Punjab it should be cultivated in the first fortnight of July at a row
spacing of 30cm and plant distance of 10cm with 4-6 cm deep, after treating the
seed with captanorthiram @ 3g per kg of seed to avoid seed borne disease.
Irrigation can be applied when the rain fail and weeding should be completed
after four weeks of sowing to avoid weed infestations. The crop are to
harvested when the pods are 80% mature with the help of a sickle and threshing
after sun drying for 2-3 days.

2.3Common pest and disease of green gram

The
common pest that infest green gram plants are aphids, whiteflies, thrips,
jassids, flea- beetles , hairy caterpillar, pod – borerand semi looperwhich can
be controlled by insecticides such as Malathiom 50 EC, Metasystox 25EC
(oxydemelon methyl ), Thiodan 35 EC ( endosulfon) or Ekalux 20 AF ( quinalphos)
(Sekhon et al. 2004). The serious
disease that infest this crops are mung bean yellow mosau virus which can be
manage by roguing it out at early growth stage and burning them and also
growing resistant varieties and Cercospora leaf spot ( CIS) caused by
cercosporacruenta and C. Canescens , Anthracnose caused by
colletotrichumtindemuthianum . for both the leaf spot and anthrawnose the seeds
can be treated with captan or thiram on spraying with Dilhanc M-45 and growing
resistant varieties ( Sekhon et al. 2004).

 

2.4 Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on
yield and growth parameter of green gram and soil physical and chemical
properties.

Organic
matter are excellent source of plant available nutrients and this addition to
the soil could maintain high microbial population and activities ( Paswal et al., 1997 ; Zink and Allen, 1998).
 (Nasiri et al,2011) observed that application of organic manure such as
livestock manure and crop residues , over a long period of time have been found
to bring about gradual improvement in soil and productivity and crop
performance The nutrient values of organic fertilizer varies according to their
decomposition rate, application method, timing , incorporation time, water
control, time exposed to various elements like sun, rain and soil types.
(Oregon state university, 2003).

The
effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on cucumber and found out that
organic treatment (10m³compost/ 54m²) gave the maximum yield than inorganic
treatment. The yield for organic fertilizer was 7005 kg/dunum and for inorganic
was 6017 kg / dunum which means organic fertilizer have better effect on the
overall growth of plant that was studied by (Natsheh and Mousa et al, 2014). Another research on green
gram nutrient status on application was conducted ( Meena et al., 2013). It showed that application of NPK up to 100%
recommended dose, FYM up to 10 t ha-¹ and vermicompost up to 5 t ha-¹ significantly
increased the number of pods per plant, seeds per pods, test weight, seed
yield, straw yield and biological yield of mung bean over those treated with a
smaller amount of inorganic, organic fertilizer and control during the
application of organic and inorganic it also significantly improved the soil N
and P as compared to control however there was an effect on the K, Zn and Fe
content when organic fertilizer was applied but no significant effect on
applying inorganic fertilizer.

Another
experiment conducted by (G.O et al.,
2012) on maize ( Zea mays L) shows that when organic fertilizer ( cow dung)
and inorganic fertilizer ( NPK) was applied on 
the field significantly increase the overall growth of the  plants over 
the  control treatment. Both the
organic and inorganic fertilizer works in a different way due to their nutrient
contents and G.O mentioned that in the absence of N,P, k fertilizer cow dung
manure can be used and the fail that organic manures even though takes time to
show the outcome is very effective and more eco-friendly than inorganic
fertilizer which works more rapidly than the former.

Both
organic and inorganic fertilizer helps in the increase productivity of the crop
yield but they also leave some both good and bad impact on the soil physical
and chemical properties.

Organic
farming contain macro-nutrient, essential nutrient , vitamin , growth-
promoting Indole acetic acid (IAA) , gibberellic acid ( GA), and beneficial
micro- organism( Sreenivasan et al ,2010)
. Experiment conducted in Bangladesh showed that excessive utilization of
chemical fertilizer have severely affected the soil properties ( Merhibbullah
et al., 2005) . A long term field experiment (1989-2003) was conducted at
Agronomy Research Farm  ,Khumaltan,
Lalitpur, Nepal on the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on rice under
Rice , wheat cropping system. ( Khadka et
al ., 2008)  reported that the role
uses of chemical fertilizer did not have much significant effect on the soil
properties while use of organic manure of 10 tone FYM ha-¹ , the total N,
available p and organic content control but also found that it sustained the
soil fertility.within the soil were significantly improved as compared to other
treatment Imbalance use of inorganic fertilizers contribute to deterioration of
soil quality as well as the environment at the same time it is essential to
meet the growing food demand of the soaring 
population by producing more crop yield . chemical fertilizer causes
serious hazards and organic fertilizer takes time to have an effect on the soil
properties, therefore the only way to tackle this problem is to use integrate
the use  of organic and inorganic
fertilizer which have proves to increase the microbial activities of the soil
as well as the properties of the soil . One of the example of this is an
experiment conducted on tomato in Mymensing , Bangladesh by Islam et al., 2017.

Integration
of both organic and inorganic fertilizer was done in the tomato field and it
was observed that not only was the yield of tomato increased as compared to control
but also found that it sustained the soil fertility.

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