first car running on the road, there was also the first car accident. As car
technology and ownership has evolved, so too has the number and severity of car
accidents. Despite public service campaigns, police enforcement and common
sense, drivers still take unnecessary risks, make bad decisions in emergencies
and drive distracted. Automakers also have to take some of them blame: unsafe
or malfunctioning cars have contributed too many deaths over the decades, too.
So to avoid these consequences automobile companies and government agency have
been staging various crash in various situations. The tests are designed to see
how well a car protects the occupants, but to test this you need to crash real
cars into real concrete blocks. Using human subjects in direct crash testing is
not a good approach. Subjects may be injured or killed which is not acceptable
on humanitarian grounds. And since the subjects would have varying
physiological responses to the crash environment, data collected from live
subjects would be highly variable. Thus the crash test dummy are used in
vehicle crash test.
Test Dummy is a calibrated test instrument used to measure human injury
potential in vehicle crashes. It simulates human response to impacts,
accelerations, deflections, forces and moments generated during a crash.
Transducers in the dummy provide the physical levels experienced by the dummy.
These readings are controlled and repeatable due to careful dummy design and
manufacture so that the vehicle designer may use them to perfect the safety of
hundred plus year history of the automobile, safety has always been a serious
concern. In fact, the fatality rate of 15.6 per 100 million vehicle miles
traveled in the 1930s was the reasons for the automobile manufactures and
government agency to start the crash testing of various vehicles for safety
dummies, cadavers were often used in testing to measure the effects of crashes
on the human body. Cadavers have been essential to making driving safer since
the 1930s, when researchers at Wayne State University threw a body down an
elevator shaft to determine the forces it could endure. Every part of a car
touching on safety — from steering columns and laminated windshields to
side-impact air bags — drew from tests with cadavers to ensure they work. They
still continue to be used by some university researchers.
to the opposition from various peoples, there were other problems with the
cadaver approach. Cadavers come in different sizes, shapes, and density, making
it difficult to do repetitive comparison testing. They’re also expensive and
can only be used once.
Samuel W. Alderson, analyzed a variety of existing information, including
cadaver-testing data, to build his first crash test dummy, “Sierra
Stan”. Sierra Stan was originally made to test aircraft ejection seats,
but Alderson Research Laboratories supplied dummies for many other purposes as
well, including NASA’s tests of lunar landing modules.
1950s, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories studied vehicle accidents to determine
how to make cars safer. “Gard Dummy,” a research dummy, was produced
Hollaman Air Force Base conducts crash tests using the “ARL VIP 50th Dummy” and
In late 1950s First cars with significant
safety features introduced.
During 1950 – 1970, automotive crash test
dummies were developed based on aerospace models. 50th and 95th percentile
males and 5th percentile female dummies produced.
In 1971 The “Hybrid I”, a standardization of
the ARL & Sierra 50th percentile male dummies, was introduced.
In 1972 The “Hybrid II” was developed, with
improved shoulders, spine and knees. It also offered better documentation than
the Hybrid I
In 1973 the standard Hybrid II 50th percentile
dummy was introduced. National Highway Transportation Safety Administration
(NHTSA) contracts with General Motors to produce improved heads, necks, joints,
ribs, knees, human-like posture and a new spine design. (ATD 502) Highway
Safety Research Institute (HSRI) receives contract from Motor Vehicle
Manufacturers Association (MVMA) to develop a 50th percentile male dummy with a
new head, neck, thorax, spine, lumbar, pelvis, legs and joints.
In 1976 “Hybrid III” was introduced. General
Motors improves ATD 502 with a new neck, thorax and more transducers for more
– 1987 NHTSA contracts with the University of Michigan Transportation Institute
(UMTRI) to produce a new side impact dummy (SID). It is a Hybrid II type dummy
with a new thorax.
During 1988 – 1989 Humanetics and SAE develop
“Hybrid III” type small female and large male scaled dummies from Hybrid III
50th dummy. General Motors and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) develop
BioSID, a Hybrid III based biofidelic side-impact dummy. AATD (advanced dummy
project) completed. University of Michigan and Wayne State University receive
NHTSA contract to develop an advanced dummy. First Technology Safety Systems is
1995-1996, First Technology Safety Systems and Occupant Safety Research
Partnership jointly develop the SID IIs, a small adult/teenager side impact
dummy for side air bag development.
In 1996 First Technology Safety Systems
develops the FT-Arup™ FE-Model Series, a highly precise and detailed finite
element crash test dummy computer model.
Types of Crash Test Dummy
dummy or full-scale anthropomorphic test device are of different kinds
depending on the point of impact. These are further given below
1. Front Impact Dummy
THOR stands for Test device for Human
Occupant Restraint, and it is an advanced frontal impact 50th percentile adult
The dummy represents the smallest segment of
the adult population and derived from scaled data from the Hybrid III 50th
50th Percentile Male
The Hybrid III 50th Percentile Male Crash
Test Dummy is the most widely used crash test dummy in the world for the
evaluation of automotive safety restraint systems in frontal crash testing
95th Large Male
The dummy represents the largest
segment of the adult population and is based on USA anthropometry studies
The ECE R16 manikin was developed as a
loading device for testing vehicle safety belts in a simulated crash situation.
The dummy represents a 50th percentile male adult in general size and weight
2. Side Impact Dummy (SID)
5th Female Side Impact
The SID-IIs Small Side Impact Dummy
(pronounced SID-2-s) is a new generation crash test dummy to specifically
evaluate advanced automotive side impact protection systems, particularly side
airbags. This dummy based on the Hybrid III 5th Female Dummy and also closely
matches size and weight of the 12-13 year old child
50th Male Side Impact
The ES-2 side impact dummy is the
next generation of the EuroSID1 dummy, incorporating many enhancements
recommended by users and regulators around the world.
50th Male Side Impact
The ES-2re Side Impact Dummy
represents a 50th percentile adult male, without lower arms.
(5th Female) Side Impact
The WorldSID-5F production version
represents an average mid-size adult female
(50th Male) Side Impact
The WorldSID-50M production version
represents an average mid-size adult male
3. Rear impact Dummy (RID)
(50th Male) Rear Impact
The BioRID-II was created to assess
seat restraints in a rear impact scenario, after extensive testing on prior
dummy models indicated a severe lack of biofidelity.
Further crash test dummy are also available for children and
4. Children dummy
CAMI (Civil Aeronautical Medical
Institute) Infant to 18 month old
This dummy is based upon a leather
skeleton, which has approximately the external shape of the dummy when viewed
Q-Series Infant to Child
It is the most advanced child dummy
in terms of its biomechanical and anthropometric characteristics, it is also
developed to be used in both front and side impact testing, making it the first
“multi-directional” (child) dummy.
Hybrid III 5F Pedestrian
Flexible Pedestrian Leg-form Impactor
Why are dummy used