Invasive adversely affect biodiversity and human health. Some

Invasive plant
species are not species
that part of an ecosystem that can damage ecosystems, the environment, economic
losses, and / or
adversely affect biodiversity and human health. Some
invasive species which is spread in some national park in Indonesia such as Acacia
nilotica in Baluran National Park,
East Java (Siregar & Tjitrosoedirdjo, 1999), Chromolaena odorata in
Pangandaran and Ujung Kulon National Park (Tjitrosemito, 1999) and Piper
aduncum (Sunaryo et al., 2012). Impact of this invasive species not
only ecological impact, but also sosioeconomic impact, include human health (Reaser
et al., 2007). Kaufman & Kaufman stated
that invasive plant species can controlled by three methods: biological,
chemical and mechanical methods.

Biological control  is done
by utilizing natural enemies.
Biological control has many advantages including small risk, no
immunity, no harm to human health and the environment, and does not require
much interference from outside. It depend on an animal eating the plants or diases infecting
it. The dissadvantages it generally biological control agents do not eliminate
a species, they simply keep it in check and prevent it from spreading (Kaufman & Kaufman). Messing  & Wright (2006) stated that biological
control is efficient, rational, transparent, accountable, and ecologically

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            Chemical control is use herbiside that
either kill plants on contact or are absorbed into the plants. Herbicides very
considerably in price, effects, safety and method of application. Using a
combination of control strategies, both chemical and nonchemical will help
reduce  the risk of herbicide resistance (Kaufman & Kaufman). Herbicide glyphosate
is used for controlling Canada thistle (Circium arvense) as invasive
plant species in Beltsville, MD (Ziska et al., 2004).

            Mechanical control is carried out by clearing and making
the partition to prevent crops from spreading to local plant areas. Mechanical
control is cheap but labour intensive. The dissadvantages of pulling or digging
plants is that it often causes soil disturbance, which can create new sites for
the invander’s seed to germinate. It makes great environmental damage. Prescribed
burns can be used in some ecosystems to kill emerging seedlings or reduce a
seed bank, but some invasive plants are well adapted to fires and may even
benefit from controlled burns. It is important to understand the life history
and adaptations of the plant you are trying to control and the ecology of the plant
community it is growing in (Kaufman
& Kaufman). Fire is used for mechanical control of  invasive plants in America (Brooks et al.,

            Of the three methods described, biological control is the
safest and
long term control system option
for ecosystems at a lowest cost. Integrated management using  biological and mechanical controls are recommended
for applicate invasive plant species (Mimosa
pigra) (Paynter, 2002). However,
integrating several methods will be far more effective in overcoming the
problem of invasive plant species.


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