LITRATURE et al. (2010) investigated about the pattern

LITRATURE REVIEW

Tumen et al. (2013) investigated the antifungal activity of heartwood
extraction from Juniperus species,
for this purposes they were used Juniperus
virginiana, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei.
The heartwood extracted with hexane, ethanol and methanol. Hexane and ethanol
extracted were tested for antifungal activity against wood rot fungi in
different proportion. They noticed that the Juniperus
extraction was highly effective against white rot fungi than brown rot fungi.
In this case ethanol extracts were highly fungal activity as compare to hexane
extracts.

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Liu et al. (2010) investigated about the pattern of biodiversity
and distribution of junipers, they examined the diversity pattern and biogeography
of Juniperus in semi arid habitat of
Northern hemisphere. The phylogeny constructed on the base of more than 10,000
bp of cp DNA for 51 Juniperus species
and few species were also examined on the base of nuclear internal transcribed
space (nrITS) and result of both data were congruence to check the status, they
found that long seed dispersal and migration contributed of modern range of
junipers while long time climate changes contributes for their diversification.
They concluded their assessment by this agreement that probably Juniperus originated Eurasia and reached
to America once at this time.

Dar and Christensen (2003)
surveyed the distribution of the genus Juniperus
in western Himalaya by extensive herbarium collection, six texa were being
reported from the same region before their work, but they analyzed that there
must had be confusion among synonyms of species so they found seven texa from
this region i.e. J. communis, J. sabina,
J. squamata, J. recura., J. semiglobosa, J. polycarpos and J. wallichiana.

Adams (2009)
Analyzed the wood oils of the serrate leave margined Juniperus of the Western Hemisphere of about 21 species. He
revealed that all texa have sufficient amount of cedrol, widrol,
cis-thujopsene, ?-cedren, and ?- cedrene. He also stated that there was to some
extend correlation between ceder wood oil composition and phylogeny of Juniperus.

Fisher (1997) carried
out an investigation at Asir Highlands of Saudi Arabia about the decline of Juniperus procera woodland. He conducted
survey between 1850 m to 2800 m of altitude and find out that the decline was
highly considerable in lower altitudinal range as compare to high elevation.
During his research work he examined poor healthy trees unhealthy barriers especially
male cones below 2400 m. The junipers were healthy above 2400 m of altitude. He
stated the results were similar to another species of Juniperus i.e. J. excelsa which
was already documented from woodland of Northern Oman. He examined the pathogen
was not found as causing agent of decline of the texa, he hypothesized that
poor growth rate and weaken live form is due to altitudinal  variation which may be the reason of climate
changes.

Fisher and Gardner (1995) investigated about the Juniperus excelsa one of the frequently
distributed plant in the mountain areas of Turkey, India and Jebel Akhdar a
mountanious region present in Oman. They comparatively studied the Juniperus of above 2400 m. they found
that the Juniperus of high altitude (
more than 2400m ) is quite well, good healthy liffeform and having the
capability of regeneration in both aspects, while below the 2400 m the
regeneration was poor and the condtions were unhealthy. For the conformation of
climatic influence upon the Juniperus they
carried out research work on the ecological status of Juniperus of 32 ha area at Hayl Juwari and analyzed the status and
regeneration between wadis and non-wadis and findout that one third of the
species were in poor conditions, having poor regenerations, poor female cone
productions and relatively unhealthy trees were found in non wadis. They
hypothesized that the climate at this altitude may be marginal for the survival
of Juniperus excelsa woodland and
small  increasing in climatic stress can imperil
the woodland’s present status.

Achakzai et al. (2016) investigated about the danger of vanishing of
the Juniper forest of Ziarat, a District of Balochistan. The forest have great
ecological importance both regional and global perspective. The study shows
that the forest has been threatened by different anthropogenic activities as
well as natural disaster. The forest is utilizing for fuel wood, for shelter,
as timber wood and for food by the local peoples. They identified that the
forest is under serious threats i.e. illegal cutting for fuel wood and timber,
over grazing, deforestation, climate change, low rainfall and non regular
drought.

Sarangzai et al. (2012)
carried out a study on the ethnobotany of Juniperus
excelsa in Ziarat, Bolochistan.  The
study shows that the local people of the area have deep relation with
athnomedicines in the same way different part of J. excelsa such as fruits, stem, bark and leaves are used to cure
coughing,  cold, stomach cramps, asthma,
diuratic, carminatives, stimulant, dropsy, gonorrhea, gleets, leucorrhoea, and
skin diseases. They also stated that oil of juniper barries used in several
products, cosmatic industries and as a popular agent for gin.

Zangiabadi et al. (2012) investigated of silviculture properties and soil
charecteristics of Juniperus excelsa M.
Bieb in the southeast of Iran. They studied the vegetative charecteristics of
junipers with relation to the soil conditions and physiographic factors in
Galoochar juniper forest reserviour in the southeast of Iran. They constructed
product land unit maps by overlying layers of slopes to observe the phsiognomy
of junipers by using 3 measuring sample plots of 40 m × 40 m and than soil
sample were taken from each unit and measured chemical as well as physical
properties of soil in laboratory. They testified the relationship of edaphic
factors with the phsiognomy of juniper trees such as the highest significant
positive correlation for CaCO3 content and canopy cover.

Sarangzai et al. (2012) examined the status of Juniperus excelsa the only conifer tree in Balochistan, Pakistan.
It is catagarized as threatened tree by IUCN Red List in Pakistan. They stated
that the co existency of different animals with juniper forest make it unique
in ecological point of view, but increasing in human poppulation, poor
regeneration, overgrazing, illegel cutting, agricultural land extetion and
periodic draft and degradating the forest in northeastern region of
Balochistan. Sarangzai et al. (2012)
proposed silvicultural practices and proper management for the sack of
different ecological and economic purposes. They identified that Juniperus excelsa does not face any
immidiate threats however in case of overgrazing and deforestration in future
may replaced by more competative species. They suggested that the conservation
may be possible by prohibited of cutting and grazing.

Mastelic et al. (2000) Isolated the essential oil by hydro distillation
and glycosides were extracted with ethyl acetate from the of Juniperus communis. After extraction the essential oil was fractionated on
micro column with different solvent having dissimilar properties. The fractions
were analyzed by chromatography-mass spectrometry on two columns having
different polarity solvents. After the test 63 compounds were identified in the
extraction, pinene was the abundant most with (16.9%) sabined was at second
most abundant component with (12.1%) and other components with smaller ratio,
after separation final purification of glycosides and enzymatic hydrolysis were
made, the separated aglycones were also testified to fractions of the essential
oil and 22 aglycones were identified.

Stampoulidis et al.
(2013) studied about the regeneration of pure Juniperus excelsa M . Bieb stands in Prespa National Park in Greece
and stated that Juniperus excelsa has
a wider growth range in both harsh environmental conditions and biotic
severness. They analyzed the regeneration of J. excelsa to determine whether regeneration gapes are under nurse
plants dominancy, for this purpose 90 plots were being stablished in two site
types and six structural types. In each plots all the Juniperus excelsa were graded in two catagories i.e. the seedling
that have been grown under the shadow of other plants catagarized as no.1,
while the seedling that are found in under scatterd plants i.e. without proper
shed catagorized as second number ranked. They observed that facilitation does
not effect the regeneration of J.
excelsa, however significant number of regeneration plant have been
produced under the facilitation but some biotic factors like grazing with
trempeling also effect the stablishment of the species both in light and shade.
They hypothesized that J. excelsa can
be a best source for the protection of degredation of land.

Tavankar (2015) conducted a research work on structure of
natural Juniperus excelsa stands in
northwest of Iran, a part of an important forest ecosystem in mountain areas of
Iran. The structure of Juniperus excelsa was
observed between the altitude of 1700 m to 1900 m in the study area. She
examined that the mean densities of trees and seedlings were recorded as 99.8 ±
32. 0 and 70.5 ± 18.3 stem per ha, the proportion of these two varities were
52.8 % junipers tree while junipers seedling were 19.3 %. Mean of basal area
recorded as 3.12 ± 0.3m (sqaur)  per ha,
mean of canopy was 42.7 ± 17.9% and mean of the height of trees were recorded
as 2.75 ± 1.1m. Tawankar concluded with the result that juniper seedling are
increased by increasing stand crown cover, however harsh environmen,
overgrazing timber cutting for fuelwood may cause destruction of the forest.

Ozkan et al. (2010)
conducted a reasearch work on site properties of Crimean juniper in semi
natural forests of southwestern Anatolia and impect of mediterrenian and
continental climates to discover site requirements of J. excelsa in Turkey. They hypothesized variation in environmental
factors and indicator species can be a best choice to determined the difference
between occurrence and cover of  J. excelsa for the sack of lagislation or
forest management. The environmental variation and species composition were
examined in 153 plots by Fisher exact probility tests and stepwise discriminant
analysis. They found that high altitude having more than 1000 m is favourable
for mediterenian climate while high stoniness surface is prox favourable for
low competition  among the different
species of plants so it has been suggested as positive site properties for J. excelsa . however different plant
species like Dianthus zonatus, Ajuga
chamaepitys, cotoneaste nummularia etc used as site indicator for J. excelsa restoration.

Pierson et al. (2007)
Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) has occupied on
millions of acres of different grass rangeland in the Great Basin and interior
Pacific Northwest. On many sites western juniper has significantly increased
exposure of the soil surface by reducing density of understory species and
surface litter. They used rainfall and rill simulation techniques to check
absorption capability, runoff and erosion on different land after the removal
juniper. The area having juniper dominated slopes had considerably lower
surface soil cover of grasses and litter and produced fast runoff with low
intensity. Open area of the soil to rainfall leads to high levels of sheet
erosion in juniper-dominated sites. Large spaces of bared areas concentrated
runoff into rills comparatively higher flowing power and erosive force cause
rill erosion rates even more than 15 times higher on juniper-dominated sites.
Juniper cutting boost up grasses recovery over soil surface also increase water
absorbing capability and protect soil. Without juniper covers produce runoff
with high-intensity events that would be expected to occurs once every 50 years
cause high intensity of both rill and sheet erosion. They concluded with that
result the juniper woodland has great ecological impact on soil holding forces.

Willson et al. (2008) conducted a research work on hydraulic traits are
influenced by phylogenetic history in the drought-resistant, invasive
genus Juniperus (Cupressaceae). They stated
that most of
the species among Juniperus are
frequently distributed and having the capability to being cosmopolitan in globe
in normal condition. For understanding succession of junipers in drought
habitat they studied hydraulic characteristics associated with water stress
absorbing forces, like susceptibility of xylem cavitations, size of trachieds
for conduction, wood density in both root and stem, as well as structure of
leaf of 14 species in the United States of America and the Caribbean. For this
purpose they used a phylogenic base sequence of DNA and fined out the
relationship between susceptibility to cavitations and other characters
using   traditional cross-species
correlations and independent contrast correlations. They found that all the
species were normally high resistant for water stressing cavitations in both
roots and stem. They investigated phylogenitic support for two clades (serrate
clade and smooth clade) previously based on leaf margin serration about 34 to
39% serrate clade were more resistance to cavitations in stems and roots
compare to smooth clade which were less than 34%. Roots and stem shows high
resistant to cavitations. They concluded that high degree of resistance within
clades proved the hydraulic character of Juniperus species
strongly reflect phylogenetic history. This high resistance against cavitations
is evidential proved that junipers survived in highly drier habitat in
southwestern United States and their expansion into arid habitats across the
western and central United States of America.

Tumen et al. (2012) conducted
a research work on Therapeutic Approach for Wound
Healing by Using Essential Oils of Cupressus and Juniperus species growing in
Turkey, they stated that Juniperus has been used as diuretic, stimulant, and
antiseptic, for different diseases like common cold and for wound healing in
Turkish folk medicine. The study revealed that the essential oils extracted
from cones of Juniperus berries were precision due to their wound healing and
anti-inflammatory result. The wound healing capability was
testified by linear
incision and circular excision experimental wound models, evaluation of
hydroxyproline content, and afterward histopathological analysis. The healing
capability was relatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. The
essential oils of J. oxycedrus proved the highest activities, however it does
not shows any appropriate effect on wound healing. They concluded their
experimental study by revealing that the J. oxycedrus shows remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities.

Borghesio et al. (2004) conducted study on Mankubsa and Arero,
two Juniperus forests in south
Ethiopian Endemic Bird Area, to collect data for this research work Field
survey and Landsat satellite imagery were used to check the conservation status
of two Juniperus forests.
They testified that the Forest cover and densely populated woodland has reduced
in both habitat between 1986 and 2002, they observed the anthropogenic interaction
in both habitats and found that human interaction were higher at Mankubsa than
at Arero. They suggested that Mankubsa was highly disturbed due to grazing
pressure, uses of land for agricultural purposes, commercial utilization for
fuel wood and utilization of timber wood, while most of the degradation at
Arero is because of the grazing of domestic animals. They suggested that
conservation efforts should be focused by reforestation, and improve uses of
forest recourses efficiently at Mankubsa, while at Arero much better results
could be obtained by boosting pasture quality and protect the postures
surrounding the forest.

Bais et al. (2014) conducted a research work on a psychopharmacological
review on a medicinal plant i.e. J.
communis, they  find out that Juniperus communis has remain one of the important ethno medicinal
plant in past era, the investigation revealed J. communis contain many important chemical components which are
used in pharmaceutical medicines. They suggested for further investigation to
conform the presence of sufficient amount of these substances whether these
would be used in pharmaceutical industries for the welfare of humankind.

Chen et al. (2015)
investigated the drought variability of Kyrgyzstan as an important component of
climate change of high Asia. They developed three tree-ring thickness chronologies
of Juniperus turkestanica at three microcites,
the study revealed the potential utility of tree-ring widths of J. turkestanica for dendroclimatic condition.
They analyzed climate response shows tree-ring widths of J. turkestanica has strongly oppressed as indicators for dendro
climatological studies because of their responses shows to PDSI. While the chronology
at the GUR site with the wet soil has low correlated with PDSI in some situation
during the study year, regardless of a similar retort to precipitation and
temperature. They stated that sensitivity of recent tree-growth to PDSI in the
Gulcha River Basin was not significantly reduced under climate warm. The study
confirmed the subsistence of the recent warming and wetting trend of high Asia,
while showed a positive impact of this wetting trend on tree growth.
Continued work in this direction enable to recognize better the growth pattern
of juniper trees under global warming and the past climate changeability of
high Asia over long chronological and large special scales

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