Occupational health is defined by Sudan ministry of

Occupational health is defined by Sudan ministry of human
development and labor as:

the science that is concerned with the
preservation of human health and safety by providing safe working environment
free from the causes of accidents, injuries or occupational diseases. or in
other words is a set of procedures, rules and regulations in a legislative
framework aimed at preserving the human from the risk of injury and
preservation of property from the risk of damage And loss.1

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1.2Background:

        Know
and then:

The first laws emerged a few years
after the beginning of the activities of trade unions. The Occupational Health
Act of 1949 was replaced by the list of workshops and labs in 1950, which
carried the burden of reporting injuries and protecting against engineering,
medical, chemical and natural hazards. However, industrial security legislation
did not keep pace with industrial development. In 1958-1964, construction
works, engineering installations, transport and deportation were included. In
1963, the list of work hazards in shipyards, gas storage and packing was added,
and in 1966 considered the psychological trauma resulting from work injuries a
professional disease. In 1975, the Public Health Law was promulgated and
was concerned with occupational health. Its most important features are
granting industrial security inspectors the authority to inspect and
investigate accidents and inspect machines and equipment. However, the
industrial security department still lacks work aids. the Occupational Health
Regulations of 1981 And the Law on Compensation for Work Injuries
in 1981
, was added to the Labor Law of 1997. This 1997 is the current active act in
Sudan.2, it consists of:

Chapter I.- Preliminary
ProvisionsChapter II.- ManpowerChapter III.- Organization of
EmploymentChapter IV.- Employment of Women
and Young PersonsChapter V.- Contracts of
EmploymentChapter VI. – Wages, advances
and other allocationsChapter VII.- Hours of work and
leaveChapter VIII.- Termination of
contract or employmentChapter IX.- Severance payChapter X.- General provisionsChapter XI.- Industrial SafetyChapter XII.- Labor disputes and
stages of their settlementsChapter XIII.- Stages of
settling labor disputesChapter XIV.- Final Decisions.3

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1.3??????? 1.3Objectives:

??????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????
?????? ??????? ??? ??????? The general objectives pursued by occupational
safety and health

1.      ????? ?????? ??????
?? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ???????. Protect the human workers from occupational hazards by
preventing  accidents, injuries and
occupational diseases.

2.      ?????? ??? ???????
?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????
????? ???????. protecting  the assets
and equipment’s operated by workers at the facility from damage and loss as a
result of accidents.

3.      ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????
???? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????. Provide and implement all occupational
safety and health requirements that ensure a safe environment for the
prevention of risks to the human and material components.

4.      ?????? ???????
?????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ??????
???????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????
?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ????
??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? .
Occupational safety and health as a scientific approach aims at reducing the
anxiety and panic attacks workers face as they are operating heavy machineries
and dealing with martials that can be dangerous to themselves as well as
others.1

 

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? ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ? ??????? ???? ????? .???? ???????
?????? ???????
1.4 Occupational Safety and Health unit
in ministry of labor roles and responsibilities:

1.       ??????? ?? ?????? ?????.
Investigation of work injuries.

2.       ??????? ???????
???????? ( ???? ? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ? ???????) Inspection of industrial establishments
(periodic, guidance, enforcement of laws and regulations)

3.       ?????? ?????
???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????
??????? ???????? Reviewing the engineering drawings of industrial buildings and
workshops and approving them after ensuring the availability of industrial
safety elements

4.       ????? ??????? ??
??????? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ? ????? ????????.
Conducting an investigation into industrial accidents and determining the
liability of employers and removing their causes.

5.       ????? ??? ?????
?????? ?????? (Manpower) ?? ????? ????? ???????? ? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????.
Work to secure Manpower from the hazards of industrial occupations by
conducting preventive inspection.

6.       ??????? ??????
??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? . Issuing registration certificates for various industrial
establishments.

7.       ??????? ??? ?????
????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????. Supervising the inspection of gazanas and
pressure vessels by specialized engineers.

8.       ????? ?????? ??????
??????? ? ????? ??????? ? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???????. To
promote the level of occupational safety and health and to spread its culture
as widely as possible within the community. 1

 

2.Ministry
of Health:

2.1Difinitions:

According to The Occupational
Health Law of Khartoum State 2011

a) Occupational Health: Means all
occupational health requirements and procedures as required by the
Administration. 
b) Occupational Illness: Is any disease that is
common among workers in a profession or a group of professions, or any other
case of poisoning originating from a substance used in a profession or a group
of professions stipulated in the list of diseases and occupational injuries
mentioned in the low of occupational safety and health issued by the state of
Khartoum in 2011.
c) Occupational injury: means physical damage to the
body tissue resulting from an accident or exposure to environmental hazards,
which may cause partial or total
disability or lead to death.4

 

 

 

 

 

2.2 Background

In 2011 the state ministry of Khartoum released the
occupational health low of Khartoum state 2011.it stated the establishment of
occupational health unit in the state ministry of health Khartoum. 5

2.3 objectives:

·        
Securing the healthy
environment of the establishment and Assessment of risks and hazards in the
facility.

 by prevention
of the following:

Noise and vibration.Lighting.the dust.Radiation harmful and dangerous.Atmospheric pressure changes.Static and mobile electricity.Risk of explosionPrevention of biologic risksPrevention of chemical hazardsPrevention of negative risksFire risk prevention.4

2.4Occupational health unit Roles and responsibilities:

The unit shall have the following functions:

1.      
Develop policies,
strategies, systems, general guidelines and technical standards necessary to
ensure the health of workers and protect them from occupational diseases and
injuries.

2.      
To monitor and control
environmental risks and ensure that the work environment of the facility comply
with health and environmental standards and specifications specified by the
Ministry of health in Khartoum state.

3.      
Provision
of advisory services in relation to the health of personnel in all professions
and advisory services in relation to the hazards of the working environment in
accordance with regulations and laws. 

4.      
 Consider complaints by individuals and groups
regarding occupational health. 

5.      
conduction of field and laboratory research and studies of
various industrial processes that are likely to cause health hazards to
workers.

6.      
Conducting the necessary medical and laboratory examinations
on the workers in the facilities to ensure that the working conditions are
appropriate. 

7.      
Sampling of materials used or traded in industrial and
agricultural processes or any other processes that may affect the health of the
workers or the working environment.

8.      
 To review the results of the technical and
administrative reports received by the organization about the types of accidents
and their causes, and to examine the quantities of stocks of hazardous
materials and how to store them. 

9.      
Any
other relevant functions entrusted to it by the Ministry of health.

10.     Based on the results of the inspection, the
administration shall have the right to take any of the procedures within its
powers under article 19 (c). 

11.    The occupational health groups
in the localities shall have the following functions: 

 a) Implementing the environmental health survey of the
establishments and conducting various measurements to improve the health work
environment within the facility. 

b)
conduct periodic medical examination of workers to detect occupational diseases
and treat them and remove their causes.

 c)  inspection
procedures to ensure that the working environment conforms to established
standards.
d) To submit periodic
medical disclosure reports, recommendations of the management and follow-up of
implementation of the recommendations 

 e) Follow-up of the
application of regulations issued by law. 
 f) any other functions entrusted to it by the
Administration.4

 

3.
Discussion of the role of both ministry of health and labor office:

 

strengths

weaknesses

Labor office

1.       All lows and regulations satisfy workers’
rights to safe working environment.
2.       The policy evolved with the
development of industries in the country.
3.       The policy followed the
international occupation safety and health regulation.
4.       The labor office has the power to
a)       Power to enter workplaces
b)       Power to inspect and carry out any
examination, test or enquiry
c)       
Power to investigate
d)       Duty to provide advice on OSH.
e)       Power to issue orders or notices
f)       
Power to impose financial penalties
g)       Power to require the cessation of
dangerous work
h)       Power to initiate prosecutions
i)        
Power to conduct prosecutions
j)        
Other enforcement powers.5
 

1.      
The policy is not properly enforced.
2.      
Lack of resources and properly trained manpower hinder all
aspects of policy enforcement; from monitoring the work establishments to
reporting and following up on violations and inspections.
3.      
Corruption may interfere with the implementation of safety
measures in establishments.
4.      
 Weakness of labor union
that is one of the monitoring bodies is also a hinder to the law application.
5.      
Inspections are not routinely done to every facility due to
lack of both resources and motivation by employees of the labor work.
6.      
There is absence of occupational health research
7.      
Absence of collaboration of the labor office with other
concerned organizations like the ministry of health, research centers and
academic centers.

Ministry of health

1.      
The 2011 occupational health low of sate of Khartoum was the
first ever separate low for occupational safety and health in Sudan.
 

1.      
The low is not a federal low which limit its applicability
only to Khartoum state.
2.      
The policy did not mention the collaboration with the labor
office which can result in fragmentation and duplication of services.

 

 

4.Conclusion:

·        
The
absence of political commitment – despite the importance of human resources in
all aspects of work, has resulted in the weakening of the adherence to lows of
occupational safety and health.

·        
As
human resources are the basis of any development. After years, the
Khartoum State has established a specialized department for occupational health
but suffers from a lack of human, technical and financial resources.

·        
  occupational health units in Sudan (mainly
labor office) has poor cooperation between them and national and international
organizations concerned with occupational safety and health.

·        
the
rapid increase in the urban population Especially Khartoum state, the
increase of the steady emigrant labor, the weakness of occupational health and
safety culture among workers and employers and decision-makers, weakness of the
technical capabilities of the inspection teams, poor documentation and research
in the field of occupational health and safety. are all factors that led to the
current situation of occupational health in Sudan.

·        
??? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? 1946? ??? ?? ?????
??????? ??? 1949? ????? ????? ????? ? ??????? ??? 1950? ????? ??? ????? ???????
?? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? 1976? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? 1977? ??????
????? ??????? ??? 1981? ? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? 1981? ? ???? ?? ????? ????? ???? 1997?. The
first legislation on occupational safety and health was issued in 1946 and then
the list of factories in 1949 and the list of workshops and factories was
issued in 1950. Thus, the law was amended with the development of industry. The
Law of Wages and Conditions of
Service
was implemented in 1976 and the
Regulations of Factories were implemented in 1977.  the Occupational
Health Regulations of 1981 And the Law on Compensation for Work Injuries in 1981 , was added to the Labor Law of 1997.

·        
In
practice, there is no control over implementation. After the Ministry of
Justice of Khartoum authorized the right to issue its labor laws, the
Occupational Safety and Health Act of Khartoum State (2011) was
promulgated. It provided for the establishment of a committee called the
State Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health and defined its
terms of reference, but it was weak for not involving beneficiaries (General
Union of Sudanese Trade Unions, General Department of Occupational Safety and
Health at the Ministry of Labor).2

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