down all possible ways how your personal computer system could be compromised.
What are the possible attack vectors?
is a nice way of saying that someone or something has maliciously broken into
your computer without your knowledge or permission. It means that you cannot
trust the integrity of any file on your computer (including program files,
image files, operating system files, etc.). You cannot find out what has been
done to your computer files without an exact “before the compromise” copy to
compare your files against, and you probably will never know what has been done
with your personal information, including your passwords or where your personal
information has been sent.
Steps for compromise the personal
Disconnect the computer from the
Contact the Information Security
Notify users of the computer, if
any, of a temporary service interruption
Preserve any log information not
resident on the compromised computer
Wait for further instructions
from the Information Security Office
There are possible ways to
compromise our personal computer system
We can always install Operating System updates
We can keep our installed applications up-to-date
We cannot use the same password at every site
We can Install and be sure to
update your anti-virus software
We can use a firewall
We can backup our data
We can enable the display of file
We do not open attachments from
people you do not know
We can ignore emails that state
you won a contest or a stranger asking for assistance with their inheritance
We can watch out for online and
phone support scams
We can ignore web pop ups that
state your computer is infected or has a problem
An attack vector is defined as
the technique by means of which unauthorized access can be gained to a device
or a network by hackers for nefarious purposes. In other words, it is used for
assaulting or exploiting a network, computer or device. Attack vectors help
unauthorized elements to exploit the vulnerabilities in the system or network,
including the human elements.
An attack vector is a path or
means by which a hacker (or cracker) can gain access to a computer or network
server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome. Attack vectors
enable hackers to exploit system vulnerabilities, including the human element.
Attack vectors include viruses,
e-mail attachments, Web pages, pop-up windows, instant messages, chat rooms,
and deception. All of these methods involve programming (or, in a few cases,
hardware), except deception, in which a human operator is fooled into removing
or weakening system defenses.
To some extent, firewalls and anti-virus
software can block attack vectors. But no protection method is totally
attack-proof. A defense method that is effective today may not remain so for
long, because hackers are constantly updating attack vectors, and seeking new
ones, in their quest to gain unauthorized access to computers and servers.
The most common malicious
payloads are viruses (which can function as their own attack vectors), Trojan horse,
worms, and spyware. If an attack vector is thought of as a guided missile, its payload
can be compared to the warhead in the tip of the missile.
to damage, destroy, or deny service to the targeted systems.
common types of software attacks are viruses, worms, Trojan horses, logic
bombs, back doors, denial-of-service, alien software, phishing and pharming.
Segments of computer code that
performs unintended actions ranging from merely annoying to destructive. It is
a piece of self-replicating code embedded within another program (host). Viruses
associated with program files
disks, floppy disks, CD-ROMS
How viruses spread
downloaded from Internet
people keep up-to-date
Destructive programs that replicate themselves without
requiring another program to provide a safe environment for replication.
It Spreads through a computer network
Exploits security holes in networked computers
programs that hide in other computer programs and reveal their designed
behavior only when they are activated.
Program with benign
capability that masks a sinister purpose
Remote access Trojan: Trojan
horse that gives attack access to victim’s computer
RAT servers often found within
files downloaded from erotica/porn Usenet sites
Provide the attacker with
complete control of the victim’s system. Attackers usually hide these Trojan horses
in games and other small programs that unsuspecting users then execute on their
Designed to activate and perform a destructive action at a
Back doors or trap doors
Typically a password, known only to the attacker, that allows
access to the system without having to go through any security.
attacker sends so many information requests to a target system that the target
cannot handle them successfully and can crash the entire system.
Pestware : Clandestine
software that uses up valuable system resources and can report on your Web
surfing habits and other personal information.
to help popup advertisements appear on your screen.
Spyware: Software that gathers user information through the user’s
Internet connection without their knowledge (i.e. keylogger, password capture).
Spamware: Designed to use your computer as a
launch pad for spammers.
Spam: Unsolicited e-mail, usually for
purposes of advertising.
Cookies: Small amount of information that Web sites store on your
computer, temporarily or more-or-less permanently
Web bugs: Small, usually
invisible, graphic images that are added to a Web page or e-mail.
Phishing: Uses deception to fraudulently acquire sensitive personal
information such as account numbers and passwords disguised as an
Pharming: Fraudulently acquires the Domain Name for a company’s Web
site and when people type in the Web site url they are redirected to a fake Web
an asset is destroyed, unavailable or unusable (availability)
unauthorized party gains access to an asset (confidentiality)
unauthorized party tampers (unauthorized alternation) with asset (integrity)
Fabrication – unauthorized
party inserts counterfeit (fraudulent imitation) object into the system (authenticity)
person denies taking an action (authenticity)
(secretly listen to a conversation)
Masquerade – one entity pretends to be a different
Replay – passive capture of information and its
Modification of messages -legitimate
message is altered
Denial of service – prevents normal
use of resources. An intentional action designed to prevent legitimate users
from making use of a computer service. Goal of this attack is disrupt a
server’s ability to respond to its clients. About 4,000 Web sites attacked each
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member of the newly established computer and data security team in ABC
a list of all possible risks that can have an impact on the security and stability
of your data and internal and external Information & Technology services.
a list of recommendations to lower the risks.
Computer Security Risks is any
event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware,
software, data, information, or processing capability.
Types of Computer Security Risks
and network attack
access and use
and network attack
Information transmitted over
networks has a higher degree of security risk than information kept on an
of service attacks
Which are program that act
without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter the computer operation.
Type of malware:
group of compromised computers connected to a network such as the Internet that
are used as part of a network that attacks other networks, usually for
program or set of instructions in a program that allow users to bypass security
controls when accessing a program, computer, or network
service attacks or DoS attack
is an assault whose purpose is to
disrupt computer access to an Internet service such as the Web or e-mail.
technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate
to a victim computer or network.
Access and Use
use of a computer or network without permission.
use of a computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal activities.
the act of stealing computer equipment.
act of defacing or destroying computer equipment.
copies a program
registers and/or activates a program
when someone steals personal or confidential information.
stolen, the loss of information can cause as much damage as (if not more than)
hardware or software theft.
system failure is the prolonged malfunction of a computer
variety of factors can lead to system failure, including:
undervoltages, and overvoltages
in computer programs
lower the risks
Install quality antivirus
Install real-time anti-spyware protection
Keep anti-malware applications current
Perform daily scans
Disable image previews in Outlook
Don’t click on email links or attachments
Use a hardware-based firewall
Deploy DNS protection