The the coast. (Nelson, 2017.) As a peninsula,


civilization of Ancient Greece was located is in southern Europe. Greece is made up

of the mainland &
hundreds of small islands situated throughout Mediterranean & Black Seas.

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Mountains, seas, &
islands formed natural barriers between the Greek city-states. These

geographical formations
forced the Ancient Greeks to settle along the coast. (Nelson, 2017.) As a

peninsula, the people
of Greece took full advantage of living by the sea. Ancient Greeks were

sailors, fishermen, & traders.
(Jones-McLean, 2010.) The Minoans
and Mycenaeans of Ancient

Greece used their
geography to their benefit. The Mediterranean Sea brought them new channels

that were used for
trade. The sea allowed the Greeks to trade for food by traveling over water.

Trade became vital for
the Ancient Greeks.


            Ancient Rome was in Italy along the Mediterranean Sea. The
city of Rome was likely

founded on the Tiber
River as a trade post of the Etruscans to the north. Once the city broke free

of control from
Etruscans, the Romans ruled the entire Italian peninsula. Rome’s geography

played in the city’s rise
to power. The rich volcanic soil made the Tiber river valleys

suitable for agriculture. Rome
attracted new settlers throughout its rise to power
due to the

agricultural potential. Because of the
surplus production of grains, olives & other crops, the

Roman population grew quickly.
(Robinson.) The Roman society benefited from the hard

& discipline from
their farmers.



centuries, Greece represented the height of art & learning – for much of

classical period & after. (Acrobatiq,
2017.) Ancient Greece viewed the emergence of

innovations in thought that are part
of the origins of what today we call philosophy,
or the “love

of wisdom.” (Acrobatiq,
2017.) The great Greek philosophers of
antiquity—Socrates, Plato, &

Aristotle—called for people to
question the nature of reality and the status quo. (Acrobatiq,

2017.) Socrates is accredited with laying the
fundamentals of modern Western philosophy.

Thanks to his process of examining
issues through a series of inquisitive questions, Socrates is

also accredited with making some of
the first steps toward scientific analysis. (Acrobatiq,

According to, “The Greeks – Introduction to PBS
Series,” Socrates is the most famous

philosopher in history. Socrates proposed that when a man attains knowledge, & unambiguously

recognizes good versus
bad knowledge, he then gains self-knowledge. He said from
leading a

moral life comes happiness rather than from material
possessions. (Nelson, 2017.) Socrates

suggested that with laws &
justice one can produce a state that nurtures happiness & excellence

amongst its people.
Without such an atmosphere, chaos will overcome, & the state will be of no

advantage to its
citizens. (Acrobatiq, 2017.) His ideas were quite radical for
the time.


            The development of Christianity in Rome & its
eventual adoption as the official religion

of the Roman state is one
of the more unusual aspects of Roman history. When Christianity was

just getting started
those who practiced it were deemed criminals. Christians refused to worship

the Roman gods which was
against the law.  Christianity developed
over centuries. In A.D 313

the Emperor Constantine
made Christianity legal & for the first time Romans could openly

worship. (Trueman, 2015.)
After a short period of time, Christianity became the dominate

religion of the city of Rome. After
that, it became the law that to be a citizen of Rome you had to be a Christian. The organization, infrastructure, &
intellectual discipline within the religion is

what helped Christianity
become a universal & imperial religion. This allowed it to sustain

philosophical &
physical attacks & allowed it to grow & endure. (Acrobatiq,



C. 1

Pompey & Julius Caesar were two major leaders of the Roman empire. In 80

B.C.E Sulla is swayed to give Pompey his first triumph in Rome.
Caesar began his rise to

power in 60 B.C.E


1. a

Pompey was a political & wealthy leader of the Roman Republic. Nicknamed,

“Pompey the Great,” he hailed from a wealthy
provincial background. He was one of the main

leaders & became Rome’s most famous general in the
final decades of the Roman Republic.

(White, 2016.) “Pompey is responsible for
bringing much of the eastern Mediterranean under

Roman control—nearly doubling
the size of the territory Rome controlled outside of Italy &

nearly tripling the
revenue brought in through taxes and tribute.” (Acrobatiq,


            Julius Caesar was probably the most famous of all the
Romans, he was a dictator of the

Roman Republic. Caesar
proved himself to be a gifted speaker & is credited with laying the

foundation for the Roman
Empire. (Staff, 2009.) He became a dominant politician after he

undertook a war against
Gaul. Caesar returned an immensely rich, popular hero who had thirteen

legions of loyal
veterans. To help unemployed poor citizens, Caesar undertook major public

buildings & projects.
He also took measures to give citizenship to the inhabitants of the newly

conquered lands. (Acrobatiq, 2017.)



defeating Mithridates VI, Gnaeus Pompey turned Bithynia, Pontus, & Syria into

Roman provinces, paving the way for Rome’s later
advances into the East.” (Lloyd, 2013.)

Pompey’s military status grew & in 67 B.C he is delegated
with an important mission – to rid the

Mediterranean of the pirates who are terrorizing
coastal regions & ruining Rome’s trade. They

are said to have had as many as 1000 ships in their
combined fleets. In view of the evident

difficulty of the task, the senate gives Pompey three
years to complete it. Pompey completed the

task in only three months. (Gascoigne,2001.)


Caesar changed the Roman Republic. In 49 B.C Caesar decided to invade Rome

take control. Caesar & his army crossed
the Rubicon River that splits Gaul & Italy, marched in,

& seized Rome. He officially recreated
the Roman Republic from being ruled by the senate into

the Roman Empire ruled by one man. During
the times of Caesar, the Roman Republic was

massively extended out of Italy &
into Europe, as well as the Mediterranean. He expanded the

Roman Republic through a series of
battles across Europe. (Historpedia, 2012.) In 44 B.C Julius

Caesar was anointed dictator for life
of Rome.


C. 3

are several assemblies that defined political life in the Roman Republic. First is

the Senate. The Senate
did not hold power to make legislation, but it did have a profound

influence over political &
social life because of the shared wealth, connections, & impact of its

members. Over
time the Roman Republic developed four legislative assemblies. (Acrobatiq,

2017.) The focus
of political power in the Roman Empire was the emperor, who held the

powers of both a consul &
a tribune. “The emperor convened an imperial
council composed of

the consuls, other magistrates, &
fifteen senators chosen by lots every six months, as an advisory

committee; however, this body had no
policy-making authority.” (Gale, 2008.) In other words,

the emperor’s word was
not law & he was still bound by Roman law. The Romans
established a

republic once free from the Etruscans in 509 B.C.E. The
Roman concept of the citizen did evolve

during the Roman Republic & changed significantly
during the later Roman Empire.



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