The code of Hammurabi was a set of 282 laws/punishments that were created in Ancient Mesopotamia by the emperor, Hammurabi. These laws/punishments were very harsh and cruel as many can agree to. The main purpose for them being so harsh was that Hammurabi wanted to prevent all potential conflict and keep order while he ruled. Many of the laws were based on family, since family was a very important matter in this time of period in Ancient Mesopotamia. The code of Hammurabi has definitely influenced political thoughts in various ways. It was basically the first code of law to be made to punish people who would commit crimes which influenced that to be a thing in many countries because of the code of Hammurabi. In each country there is different ways to punish someone for a crime, it depends obviously, but the code of Hammurabi was insanely more harsh than in laws these days even though in some places of the world some punishments can be very harsh. The code of hammurabi also influenced of how a government should be made, to have a very powerful leader who makes the best to have a successful running country, and how to classify their own people in different classes. Isaiah was a Jewish prophet, basically the jews had this belief that God used the prophets to bring in messages to his people. The main contribution of Isaiah or any other prophet was their messages and one of the messages were that the Jews had not been faithful at all, but if they could recover from this evil that was controlling them, God would be forgiving; was the main message that the Jews had to fulfill. Isaiah had a book in the bible, where he stated that actions that were cruel would bring severe punishment. He was very glad that God that chosen him to write prophecies and speak them out about the restoration of Jerusalem. Also, he was concerned for all humanity and the social injustice that was happening, all he wanted was peace. He predicted the coming of God onto the grounds of the Earth. Buddha or also known as Siddhartha Gautama wanted his thousands of devoted followers to achieve wisdom, that was his message and his contribution into creating a new spiritual philosophy. His philosophies were, the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, and the Five precepts. By following all those, he claimed there would be an end to unsatisfactoriness and suffering. He also taught the principles of Karma. Confucius was a philosopher that wanted a answer of how to restore order to society in the sixth century B.C. where there was a great confusion in China and where rival armies would fight all the time. He travelled all over China as a “political counselor”. The most important thing to him was the morals of people in the real world. His philosophy was his religious contribution which was that he believed were born as a good person and they would achieve all this knowledge if they had virtuous leaders. He also believed that it was disrespectful if you did not obey your superiors. This lead into students of him contributing his sayings that guided the Chinese into becoming better people with good morals. Isaiah represents the religion Judaism, Buddha represents Buddhism, and Confucius represents the religion Confucianism. There is major differences in all these religions and the figures themselves, but there is also some similarities. One of the main differences is that there is no god for Buddhism or Confucianism, only for Judaism, which is God. A similarity is that Buddha and Confucius had philosophies as their religion contribution. Also, all three religious figures wanted the best for the people that followed them, even though Isaiah was just a prophet and wasn’t really like a teacher like Buddha and Confucius. Athens and Sparta have differences and similarities of course. The similarities concluded that they were both very powerful city-states and their governments was an oligarchy, but for Sparta it was headed by two kings and for Athens it was aristocrats in control and also at first Athens was ruled by a king. There is a lot of differences between these two city-states. One of them was the Sparta was a military state and Athens was more just like a normal city-state where they really wanted to be powerful and successful. Another difference is that Athens was less successful than Sparta because Sparta never had economic problems, but they did have the problem that they controlled the people too much. In Athens there was slaves, but in Sparta there was not any of them. Athens then later had a direct democracy which Sparta did not have. A influence that Sparta had on “Western” political thought today is to have a monarchy government. The influence that Athena had on “Western” political thought was their direct democracy, if they hadn’t developed direct democracy, today in present time there might have even not been such a thing as democracy. The philosophies of Plato were that an ideal state there would be three groups of society, the philosopher kings, the warriors, and everyone else. In the philosopher kings, the people that were considered that, were men that would achieve high power because of how smart they were. In the warriors, they were people who protected society. In the third group, it was the people who didn’t follow by wisdom or courage, but for what they desired. Plato believed that men and women should have equal rights, such as having the right to education and access to positions in society. In his own true words he thought that a good society could be met if political power and philosophy met. The lasting contribution that Plato has made on philosophy is on how he based education and the rights of people on philosophy. This ideal government was a republic.The philosophies of Aristotle that there should be a rational form of government. He analyzed different states to find which form of governments were the best. He concluded that the the three good types of governments were, monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government. He believed the best type of government for people was a constitutional government. The lasting contribution that Aristotle had on philosophy were the contributions of logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre. The way the Roman empire was Latinized was that the armies started conquering lands, but in these lands they got taken over them. They changed the idea of the Roman government, or more like force the government making the Roman empire be latinized. There was also educated citizens everywhere in the empire that spoke Latin. Since the start the main language of Rome was Latin. The culture and politics of Rome spread because they would send Roman citizens to spread the culture in places that they wanted to conquer. Also so the locals would come to accept it faster after each conquest that was successful. Paragraph ID: PlatoWHO: Plato was one of the greatest philosophers in the Western Civilizations. WHAT: He explained his thoughts on his own ideal state of government, a republic. WHEN: In early Greece.WHERE: He expressed his philosophies in Athens, Greece.HOW: He explained his thoughts not by writing them like Socrates did. WHY: He did this because he had a big passion for philosophy and wanted to get his ideas out there of how the ideal government should be. IMPORTANCE: He had great philosophies that were believed to be the ideal government because of his belief in women and men being equal. ——————————————————————–AristotleWHO: Was the third greatest Greek philosopher in the Western Civilizations. WHAT: He studied at Plato’s famous academy for 20 years and he focused on classifying certain things by observing. WHEN: Some time period in Greece.WHERE: His philosophies were brought out in Athens, Greece.HOW: He wrote many of his subjects and the contributed to the science of western civilizations. WHY: He had a big passion for all his subjects he studied and had different ideas of what the perfect governments were. IMPORTANCE: He made a big contribution to the science of western civilizations and the influence of ideal governments. ——————————————————————–Twelve TablesWHO: A code of 12 laws. WHAT: Laws that were created in order for them to be passed by governments so hopefully all citizens might be treated equally. WHEN: They were created in 451 and 450 BCE.WHERE: They were made in Ancient Rome. HOW: A group of ten men were commissioned to draw a code of law on bronze tables that were based on Patricians and Plebeians. (So it would be equal)WHY: To have equal rights between Patricians and Plebeians. IMPORTANCE: All citizens would be treated equally was the importance of created these code of laws. ——————————————————————–Law of NationsWHO: Were different international laws. WHAT: A law that was within the Rome system and also other Western Civilizations. WHEN: WHERE:HOW:WHY:IMPORTANCE:——————————————————————–PericlesWHO: Pericles was a Greek statesman. (Politician) WHAT: Pericles transformed many city’s alliances into an ideal empire.WHEN: In between the years 495-429 B.C..WHERE: This took place in Athens, Greece. HOW:WHY: IMPORTANCE: He is important because he created a League that was later created into an Athenian empire that was very successful. He also was very wise. ——————————————————————–ConstantineWHO: He was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian-Greek. WHAT:WHEN: He ruled from 306 to 337 AD. WHERE: He ruled in Rome. HOW: WHY: IMPORTANCE: He reconstructed the government and made a very strong powerful empire. ——————————————————————–Roman SenateWHO:WHAT:WHEN:WHERE:HOW:WHY:IMPORTANCE:——————————————————————–Roman RepublicWHO:WHAT:WHEN:WHERE:HOW:WHY:IMPORTANCE: VOCABULARYCivilization: A type of culture which is complex where a lot of people share their own beliefs, their amazing art, and social class. Patriarchal: When a society is dominated by men.Matriarchal: When a society is dominated by women. Pharaoh: Egyptian monarchs were called Pharaohs.Judaism: Religion made from people that were from Judah known as the Jews. Monotheism: The belief that there is only one God, not a lot. Covenant: A contract or an agreement.Prophet: Someone who was chosen by God for him to use them as a voice to speak to his own people and send messages that were needed. Caste System: A system in where there was many categories that were used to determine a person’s occupation or their position in society.Hinduism: A type of religion where it had the Aryans own religious beliefs and it also had other beliefs not just from the Aryans. Some beliefs included, reincarnation, the belief that when a person dies its soul will be reborn, and they also believed in Karma, which is what a person does in their life (negatively) it will affect their life in the future. Buddhism: A type of religion that was developed in India by BuddhaConfucianism: A type of religion or also can be identified as a system that was created by a philosopher named, Confucius. It was developed to help to order the society that was in confusion after the end of the Zhou Dynasty.Aryans: People who started to dominate after the Harappan civilization ended in 1500 B.C..Siddhartha Gautama: A man that was born in 563 B.C., also known as Buddha that created the religion Buddhism. He was also a philosopher. Polis: A city-state in Greece. It was made from three groups which were the citizens that had political rights, citizens with zero political rights, and noncitizens. Democracy: A type of government which was ruled by many or by the people of a city-state.Oligarchy: A type of government which was ruled by a few people. Direct Democracy: A type of government where the people get to participate directly by mass meetings. Philosophy: A system that is organized through thoughts. Philosophers: A person who studies the meaning of life, makes their own philosophies of their own beliefs like their ideal state or government. Socratic Method: A teaching method that was made by Socratic. It used the format of question and answer format so it could make his students think and answer. Patricians: People with a lot of land that became Rome’s leading class. Plebeians: People who were less wealthy and had less land like farmers or craftspeople, etc..Christianity: The religion that became the official religion of the Roman empire in the late years.Catholic Church: The first Christian institution in Rome. Augustus: The person who created a new order that made the Roman Empire rise and have peace and prosperity in between A.D. 14 and A.D. 180. Jesus: A jewish prophet who claimed he was the son of God and had a message from God to them. The message was to love God and one another. Nero: An emperor who ruled from A.D. 54 to 68. He was a very harsh emperor who had Christians persecuted because he blamed them for the fire that destroyed most of Rome. Socrates: A philosopher that first was a stone man that loved philosophy a lot. He believed that education was made to improve human understanding. He later became to be one of the greatest philosophers in the Western Civilizations.